Surface Structures from LEED: Metal Surfaces and Metastable Phases
We review two notable achievements of low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) research: (1) the discovery and study of surface relaxation and (2) the identification and characterization of epitaxially-grown metastable phases. Both achievements are linked to the ability of LEED to determine the atomic structure of 4–5 layers of atoms on crystal surfaces. To be sure, other surface-sensitive techniques have structure capabilities, notably high-, medium-, and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy (HEISS, MEISS, LEISS), surface extended X-ray absorption fine structure (SEXAFS), and high-energy electron diffraction (HEED), but LEED has been, to date, the most productive technique with regard to the achievments mentioned above.
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