Reproductive Physiology

  • I. P. Callard
  • L. Klosterman
  • Gloria V. Callard

Abstract

The reproductive biology of the chondrichthyan fishes is remarkably sophisticated. Using both oviparous and viviparous reproductive modes, the group in general has adapted the strategy of giving birth to relatively few young at one time, each representing the investment of a great deal of maternal energy. The oviparous species foreshadow the situation common in oviparous reptiles and universal in birds. On the other hand, viviparous species range from internal incubators, in which large yolked eggs are retained, to other species in which the complexity of placentation and egg yolk reduction approaches the eutherian condition. Further, in certain viviparous elasmobranchs, the phenomenon of histiotrophic nutrition attains an importance and complexity not seen in any other vertebrate group. Associated with the elasmobranch priority on these female reproductive adaptations, internal fertilization, amniote patterns of reproductive tract development, sex differentiation and a typically vertebrate type of reproductive endocrinology are seen for the first time in the vertebrates.

Keywords

Germinal Beach Encapsulation Alkalinity Diol 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. P. Callard
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. Klosterman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gloria V. Callard
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Mount Desert Island Biological LaboratorySalsbury CoveUSA

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