DNA Polymorphisms - Practical use
The Home Office Forensic Science laboratories in England and Wales group blood and blood-stains in the following systems: ABO, PGM, ACP, Hp and Gc. In combination these systems provide a mean discriminating power (DP) of 0.99. For semen stains the situation is much less satisfactory, only two systems are used routinely PGM and ABO. A third system, Lewis, is used to provide information to aid the interpretation of the results obtained by the ABO tests. Both ABO and PGM may give equivocal results particularly when a mixture of body fluids is present eg. semen and saliva, semen and vaginal secretion. Indeed in the examination of vaginal swabs taken after rape ABO testing will only reveal an antigen that is foreign to the victim in approximately 36% of cases (Werrett and Lang 1987). PGM tests on vaginal swabs are complicated by the stimulation of vaginal PGM production in the presence of semen, which tends to obscure the group of the seminal PGM (Garlo 1983). There is, therefore, a need for a sensitive highly discriminating test, particularly for the analysis of body fluids other than blood.
KeywordsNone None Vaginal Swab Chance Association Locus Specific Probe Tandem Repeat Array
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Giusti A, Baird BS, Pasquale S, Balazs I, Glassberg J (1986) Application of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) polymorphisms to the analysis of DNA recovered from sperm. J Forens Sci 31: 409–417Google Scholar
- Kanter E, Baird M, Shaler R, Balazs I (1986) Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) recovered from dried bloodstains. J Forens Sci 31: 403–408Google Scholar
- Maniatis T, Fritsch EF, Sambrook (1982) Molecular cloning: A laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbour LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
- Vassart G, Georges M, Monsieur R, Brocas H, Lequarre A, Christophe D (1987) A sequence in M13 phage detects hypervariable minisatellites in human and animal DNA Science 235: 683–684Google Scholar
- Werrett DJ, Lang BG (1987) The biochemistry, genetics and applications of the ABO and Lewis soluble antigens. FBI, US Dept of Justice, Washington, D.C. 20535. In pressGoogle Scholar