DNA Polymorphisms - Practical use

  • D J Werrett
  • P D Gill
  • J E Lygo
  • S J Fowler
Part of the Advances in Forensic Haemogenetics book series (HAEMOGENETICS, volume 2)


The Home Office Forensic Science laboratories in England and Wales group blood and blood-stains in the following systems: ABO, PGM, ACP, Hp and Gc. In combination these systems provide a mean discriminating power (DP) of 0.99. For semen stains the situation is much less satisfactory, only two systems are used routinely PGM and ABO. A third system, Lewis, is used to provide information to aid the interpretation of the results obtained by the ABO tests. Both ABO and PGM may give equivocal results particularly when a mixture of body fluids is present eg. semen and saliva, semen and vaginal secretion. Indeed in the examination of vaginal swabs taken after rape ABO testing will only reveal an antigen that is foreign to the victim in approximately 36% of cases (Werrett and Lang 1987). PGM tests on vaginal swabs are complicated by the stimulation of vaginal PGM production in the presence of semen, which tends to obscure the group of the seminal PGM (Garlo 1983). There is, therefore, a need for a sensitive highly discriminating test, particularly for the analysis of body fluids other than blood.


None None Vaginal Swab Chance Association Locus Specific Probe Tandem Repeat Array 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • D J Werrett
    • 1
  • P D Gill
    • 1
  • J E Lygo
    • 1
  • S J Fowler
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Research EstablishmentHome Office Forensic Science ServiceAldermaston, ReadingUK

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