The Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factors
Haemopoiesis is the process whereby a small population of multipotential stem cells continuously gives rise to a large number of mature blood cells which comprise eight distinct cellular lineages. In normal health, the circulating levels of mature cells are remarkably invariant, suggesting that their production is tightly regulated. However, the haemopoietic system is also flexible, allowing fluctuations in the levels of various cell types to meet emergency situations such as blood loss, infection or reduced oxygen tension. Some of the mechanisms controlling haemopoiesis, particularly those concerned with stem cell populations, appear to involve contact between haemopoietic cells and other cells in the micro-environment at the sites of blood cell formation (e.g. Allen 1981). However, the ability to grow colonies of mature haemopoietic cells from single progenitor cells in semi-solid culture systems has also implicated a number of soluble glycoprotein growth factors. These factors, known as colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), have been shown in vitro to stimulate the proliferation, differentiation and functional activation of cells within different haemopoietic lineages (Metcalf 1984).
KeywordsAgar Leukemia Glucagon Stim Mast
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Allen TD (1981) Haemopoietic microenvironments in vitro: Ultrastructural aspects. In: Porter R, Whelan J (eds) Microenvironments in haemopoietic and lymphoid differentiation. Pitman Medical, London, pp 38–67 (Ciba foundation symposium, vol 84 )Google Scholar
- Dunn AR, Metcalf D, Stanley E, Grail D, King J, Nice EC, Burgess AW, Gough NM (1985) Biological characterization of regulators encoded by cloned hemopoietic growth factor gene sequences. In: Feramisco J, Ozanne B, Stiles C (eds) Growth factors and transformation. Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pp 227–234 (Cancer cells, vol 3 )Google Scholar
- Kawasaki ES, Ladner MB, Wang AM, Van Arsdell J, Warren MK, Coyne MY, Schweikart VL, Lee M-T, Wilson KJ, Boosman A, Stanley ER, Ralph P, Mark DF (1985) Molecular cloning of a complementary DNA encoding human macrophage-specific colony-stimulating factor (CSF1). Science 230: 291–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kelso A, Gough N (1986) Expression of haemopoietic growth-factor genes in murine T lymphocytes. In: Webb DR, Goeddel D (eds) Molecular cloning and analysis of lymphokines. Academic Press, New York (in press) (The lymphokines, vol 13)Google Scholar
- Krammar PH, Echtenacher B, Gemsa D, Hamann V, Hultner L, Kaltman B, Kees U, Kubelka C, Marcucci F (1983) Immune-interferon (IFN-y), macrophage-activating factors (MAFs) and colony-stimulating factors ( CSFs) secreted by T cell clones in limiting dilution microcultures, long-term cultures, and by T cell hybridomas. Immunol Rev 76: 5–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Metcalf D (1984) The haemopoietic colony stimulating factors. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Metcalf D, Nicola NA (1985) Role of the colony stimulating factors in the emergence and suppression of myeloid leukemia populations. In: Wahren B, Holm G, Hammarstrom S, Perlmann P (eds) Molecular biology of tumour cells. Raven, New York, pp 215–232 (Progress in cancer research and therapy, vol 32 )Google Scholar
- Wong GG, Witek JS, Temple PA, Wilkens KM, Leary AC, Luxenberg DP, Jones SS, Brown EL, Kay RM, Orr EC, Shoemaker C, Golde DW, Kaufman RJ, Hewick RM, Wang EA, Clark SC (1985) Human GM-CSF: Molecular cloning of the complementary DNA and purification of the natural and recombinant proteins. Science 228: 810–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar