The Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factors

  • Nicholas M. Gough


Haemopoiesis is the process whereby a small population of multipotential stem cells continuously gives rise to a large number of mature blood cells which comprise eight distinct cellular lineages. In normal health, the circulating levels of mature cells are remarkably invariant, suggesting that their production is tightly regulated. However, the haemopoietic system is also flexible, allowing fluctuations in the levels of various cell types to meet emergency situations such as blood loss, infection or reduced oxygen tension. Some of the mechanisms controlling haemopoiesis, particularly those concerned with stem cell populations, appear to involve contact between haemopoietic cells and other cells in the micro-environment at the sites of blood cell formation (e.g. Allen 1981). However, the ability to grow colonies of mature haemopoietic cells from single progenitor cells in semi-solid culture systems has also implicated a number of soluble glycoprotein growth factors. These factors, known as colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), have been shown in vitro to stimulate the proliferation, differentiation and functional activation of cells within different haemopoietic lineages (Metcalf 1984).


Granulocyte Colony Stimulate Factor Haemopoietic Cell Mature Blood Cell Reduce Oxygen Tension Haemopoietic Growth Factor 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

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  • Nicholas M. Gough

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