Pulmonary Surfactant Effects and Replacement in Oxygen Toxicity and Other ARDS-Type Lung Injuries
In the thirty years since the discovery of surface active material in the alveolar region of the lung, and its fundamental importance for respiration, extensive studies have been directed at characterizing and understanding the pulmonary surfactant system (e.g. [20, 24]). A basic driving force for much of this lung surfactant (LS) research was the discovery in 1959 that the respiratory distress syndrome of the premature newborn (RDS) resulted directly from a lack of surfactant-producing type II pneumocytes in the immature lung, giving rise to a primary deficiency in alveolar surfactant at birth . After the fundamental importance of LS for normal respiration was established, extensive research efforts were initiated to develop beneficial exogenous surfactant replacement therapy for neonatal RDS. The pathway to such therapy has been longer than many researchers expected, but since the beginning of this decade, it has become increasingly clear that exogenous surfactant replacement in RDS is highly efficacious in premature infants [e.g. 5, 20 (for review), 27, 29.
KeywordsPlacebo Permeability Surfactant Toxicity Dioxide
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