The Anterior Mediastinum

  • E. Robert Heitzman


The anterior mediastinum is situated behind the sternum and in front of the great vessels and the pericardium. Its lateral margins are the mediastinal pleurae in contact with the anteromedial aspect of each lung (Figs. 5.1, 5.2, 5.8). Inferiorly, it reaches the diaphragm, while its upper limit is arbitrarily stated in most textbooks of anatomy as a line extending from the lower end of the manubrium of the sternum posteriorly to the inferior margin of the body of the fourth thoracic vertebra [18, 128]. For the purposes of this discussion, the anterior mediastinum can be considered to merge at its upper end with the thoracic inlet and to lie in front of the supra-azygos and infra-azygos areas on the right and the supra-aortic and infra-aortic areas on the left.


Internal Mammary Artery Anterior Chest Wall Compute Tomogram Anterior Mediastinum Internal Mammary Lymph Node 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aygun C, Slawson RG, Bajaj K, Salazar OM (1984) Primary mediastinal seminoma. Urology 23:109–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baron RL, Levitt RG, Sagel SS, Stanley RJ (1981) Computed tomography in the evaluation of mediastinal widening. Radiology 138:107–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baron RL, Lee JKT, Sagel SS, Levitt RG (1982) Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus. Radiology 142:127–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baron RL, Lee JKT, Sagel SS, Peterson RR (1982) Computed tomography of the normal thymus. Radiology 142:121–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baron RL, Lee JKT, Sagel SS, Peterson RR (1983) Standard for normal thickness of the thymus gland. Radiology 147:887Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Batra P, Hermann C, Mulder D (1987) Mediastinal imaging in myasthenia gravis: correlation of chest radiography, CT, MR and surgical findings. AJR 148:515–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bein ME, Mancuso AA, Mink JH, Hansen GC (1978) Computed tomography in the diagnosis of mediastinal lipomatosis. J Comput Asst Tomogr 2:379–383Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berkow AE, Demos TE (1976) The midsternal stripe and its relationship to postoperative sternal dehiscence. Radiology 121:525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bethancourt B, Pond GD, Jones SE, Grogan T, Wasserman P (1984) Mediastinal hematoma simulating recurrent Hodgkin Disease during systemic chemotherapy. AJR 142:1119–1120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bjork L, Friedman R (1965) Routine roentgeno-graphic diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta in the child. Am J Roentgenol 95:636–641Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bodman SF, Condemi JJ (1967) Mediastinal widening in iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome. Ann Intern Med 67:399–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boyd E (1932) Weight of the thymus gland in health and disease. Am J Dis Child 43:1162–1214Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown RC, Cohen WN, Rose EF (1976) Malignant thymoma with penetration into the gastrointestinal tract. South Med J 69:409–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brown LR, Augenbaugh GL, Wick MR, Baker BA, Salassh RM (1982) Roentgenologic diagnosis of primary corticotropin producing carcinoid tumors of the mediastinum. Radiology 142:143–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carsky EW, Azimi F, Mauceri R (1980) Epicardial fat sign in the diagnosis of pericardial effusion. JAMA 244:2762–2764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Castellino RA, Blank N (1972) Adenopathy of the cardiophrenic angle (diaphragmatic) lymph nodes. Am J Roentgenol 114:509–515Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cho CS, Blank N, Castellino RA (1984) CT evaluation of cardiophrenic angle lymph nodes in patients with malignant lymphoma. AJR 143:719–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Clemente CD (1985) Anatomy of the human body by Henry Gray, 30th Am edn. Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cohen M, Hill CA, Cangir A, Sullivan MP (1980) Thymic rebound after treatment of childhood tumors. AJR 135:151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cohen SL (1953) The right pericardial fat pad. Radiology 60:391–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Collier BD, Palmer DW, Wilson JF, Greenberg M, Komaki R, Cox JD, Lawson TL, Lawlor PM (1983) Internal mammary lymphoscintigraphy in patients with breast cancer. Correlation with computed tomography and impact on radiation therapy planning. Radiology 147:845–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Davis LA, McCreadle SR (1962) The enlarged thymus gland in leukemia in childhood. Am J Roentgenol 88:924–927Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Davis WS, Allen RP (1968) Accessory diaphragm - duplication of the diaphragm. Radiol Clin North Am 6:253–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    del Regato JA, Spjut HJ (1977) Ackerman and del Regato’s Cancer - diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis, 5th edn. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Demos TC, Cardella RG, Moncada R, Reynes CJ, Love L, Churchill RJ (1983) Epicardial fat sign due to extrapericardial disease. AJR 141:289–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    DiGeorge AM (1965) Discussions on new concepts of cellular basis of immunity. J Pediatr 67:907–908Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Drachman B (1978) Myasthenia gravis. N Engl J Med 298:136–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Drasin GF, Lynch T, Temes GP (1978) Ectopic ACTH production and mediastinal lipomatosis. Radiology 127:610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ege GN (1982) RE: Computed tomographic demonstration of internal mammary lymph node metastasis in patients with breast carcinoma. Radiology 142:253–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ellis K, Gregg HG (1964) Thymomas - roentgen considerations. Am J Roentgenol 91:105–119Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ellison RT III, Corrao WM, Fox MJ, Braman SS (1981) Spontaneous mediastinal hemorrhage in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Ann Intern Med 95:704–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Engleman RM, Williams D, Gouge TH, Chase RM Jr, Falk EA, Boyd AD, Reed GE (1973) Mediastinitis following open-heart surgery: review of two years’ experience. Arch Surg 107:772–778Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Eshaghy B, Loeb HS, Miller SE, Scanlon PJ, Towne WD, Gunnar RM (1973) Mediastinal and retropharyngeal hemorrhage - a complication of cardiac catheterization. JAMA 226:427–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fayos JV (1968) Extrapulmonary intrathoracic manifestations of Hodgkin’s disease. Radiol Clin North Am 6:131–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Federle MP, Callen PW (1979) Cystic Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the thymus: computed tomographic appearance. J Comput Assist Tomogr 3:542–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Felson B (1973) Chest roentgenology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Felson B, Castleman B, Levinsohn EM, Markarian B (1982) Radiologic-pathologic correlation conference: SUNY Health Science Center at Syracuse, New York. Cushing syndrome associated with mediastinal mass. AJR 138:815–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Figley MM (1954) Accessory signs of coarctation of the aorta. Radiology 62:671–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Filly R, Blank N, Castellino RA (1976) Radiographic distribution of intrathoracic disease in previously untreated patients with Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Radiology 120:277–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fisher ER (1964) Pathology of the thymus and its relation to human disease. In: Good RA, Gabrielson AE (eds) The thymus in immunology. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fleischner FG, Bernstein C, Levine BE (1948) Retrosternal infiltration in malignant lymphoma. Radiology 51:350–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fon GT, Bein ME, Mancuso AA, Keesey JC, Lupetin AR, Wong WS (1982) Computed tomography of the anterior mediastinum in myasthemia gravis: a radiologic-pathologic correlative study. Radiology 142:135–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Forrest JV, Schackleford GD, Bramson RT, Anderson LS (1973) Acute mediastinal widening. Am J Roentgenol 117:881–885Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Francis IR, Glazer GM, Bookstein FL, Gross BH (1985) Thymus: reexamination of age related changes in size and shape. AJR 145:249–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Franken EA (1968) Radiological evidence of thymic enlargement in Graves disease. Radiology 91:20–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fraser RG, Pare JAP (1977) Diagnosis of diseases of the chest, 2nd edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Friedman AC, Pyatt RS, Hartman DS, Downey EF, Olson WB (1982) CT of benign cystic teratomas. AJR 138:659–665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Frölich DJ, Clements JL Jr, Weens HS (1975) Epicardial fat line in left pleural effusion. AJR 124:394–396Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gale ME (1986) Anterior diaphragm: variations in the CT appearance. Radiology 161:635–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Goebel N (1983) The “lobe” of the right brachiocephalic vein. CT-sonographie 3:146–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Goldstein G, McKay IR (1969) The human thymus. Green, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Goodman LR, Kay HR, Teplick SK, Mundth ED (1983) Complications of median sternotomy: computed tomographic evaluation. AJR 141:225–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Goodman LR, Teplick SK, Kay HR (1983) Computed tomography of the normal sternum. AJR 141:219–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gunn A, Michie W, Irvine WJ (1964) The thymus in thyroid disease. Lancet 2:776–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Heiberg E, Wolverson MK, Sundaram M, Nouri S (1982) Normal thymus: CT characteristics in subjects under age 20. AJR 138:491–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hochholzer L, Theros EG, Rosen SH (1969) Some unusual lesions of the mediastinum: roentgenologic and pathologic features. Semin Roentgenol 4:74–90Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Holt JF (1947) Epipericardial fat shadows in differential diagnosis. Radiology 48:472–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Homer MJ, Wechsler RJ, Carter BL (1978) Mediastinal lipomatosis. CT confirmation of a normal variant. Radiology 128:657–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Jorgens J, Kundel R, Lieber A (1962) Cinefluoro-graphic approach to diagnosis of pericardial effusion. Am J Roentgenol 87:911–916Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Keats TE (1974) Right parasternal stripe - a new mediastinal shadow and a contribution to the nature of the retrosternal line. Am J Roentgenol 120:898–900Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kemp FH, Morley HMC, Embrys-Roberts E (1948) A sail-like triangular projection from the mediastinum: a radiographic appearance of the thymus gland. Br J Radiol 21:618–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kemp-Harper RA, Guyer PB (1965) The radiological features of thymic tumors: a review of 65 cases. Clin Radiol 16:97–105Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Keynes G (1954) Physiology of the thymus gland. Br Med J 2:659–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kirkpatrick JA Jr, DiGeorge AM (1968) Congenital absence of the thymus. Am J Roentgenol 103:32–37Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kissin CM, Husband JE, Nicholas D, Eversman W (1987) Benign thymic enlargement in adults after chemotherapy: CT demonstration. Radiology 163:67–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Klatte EC, Yune HY (1972) The diagnosis and treatment of pericardial cysts. Radiology 104:541–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kleinman PK, Raptopoulos V (1985) The anterior diaphragmatic attachments: an anatomic and radiologic study with clinical correlates. Radiology 155:289–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kleinman PK, Brill PW, Whalen JP (1978) Anterior pathway for transdiaphragmatic extension of pneumomediastinum. AJR 131:271–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Knuttson F (1955) Mediastinal pleura. Acta Radiol 43:265–275Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Koerner HJ, Sun Di-C (1966) Mediastinal lipomatosis secondary to steroid therapy. Am J Roentgenol 98:461–464Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kountz SL, Connolly JE, Cohn R (1963) Seminoma-like (or seminomatous) tumors of the anterior mediastinum. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 45:289–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kremens V (1955) Demonstration of pericardial shadow on routine chest roentgenograms: new roentgen finding, preliminary report. Radiology 64:72–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lane EJ, Carsky EW (1968) Epicardial fat: lateral plain film diagnosis in normals and in pericardial effusion. Radiology 91:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lanuza A (1971) The sign of the cane. A new radiological sign for the diagnosis of small Morgagni hernias. Radiology 101:293–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lattes R (1962) Thymoma and other tumors of the thymus; analysis of 107 cases. Cancer 15:1224–1261Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lee WJ, Fattal G (1976) Mediastinal lipomatosis in simple obesity Chest 70:308–309Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Leigh TF, Weens HS (1959) The mediastinum. Thomas, Springfield, ILGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Leigh TF, Weens HS (1969) Roentgen aspects of mediastinal lesions. Semin Roentgenol 4:59–73Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Leszcynski SZ (1972) Purulent and fibrous mediastinitis; radiologic diagnosis. Polish Medical Publishers, WarsawGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Levitt RG, Husband JE, Glazer HS (1984) CT of primary cell tumors of the mediastinum. AJR 142:73–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lindfors KK, Meyer JK, Busse PM, Kopans DB, Munzenreider JE, Sawicka JM (1985) CT evaluation of local and regional breast cancer recurrence. AJR 145:833–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lodin H (1957) Mediastinal herniation and displacement - studied by transversal tomography. Acta Radiol 48:337–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lowenhaupt E, Brown R (1951) Carcinoma of thymus of granulomatous type, clinical and pathological study. Cancer 4:1193–1209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lubin BH, Friedman S, Miller WM (1967) Intra-pericardial teratoma associated with pericardial effusion - an acute surgical problem in infancy. J Pediatr Surg 2:336–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Maier HC (1938) Mediastinal hernia in the absence of pneumothorax. Am J Roentgenol 39:687–697Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Marnocha KE, Maglinte DDP, Woods J, Goodman M, Peterson P (1984) Mediastinal width/chest width ratio in blunt chest trauma: a reappraisal. AJR 142:275–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Meyer JE, Munzenrider JE (1981) Computed tomographic demonstration of internal mammary lymph node metastasis in patients with locally recurrent breast carcinoma. Radiology 139:661–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Meyer JE, McLoud TC, Lindfors KK (1985) CT demonstration of cardiophrenic angle lymphade-nopathy in Hodgkin disease. J Comput Assist Tomogr 9:485–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Moffat RE (1976) Radiologic changes in the thymoma - hypogammaglobulinemia syndrome. AJR 126:1219–1222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Moore AV Jr, Korobkin M, Olanow H, Heaston DK, Ram PC, Dunnick NR, Silverman P (1983) Age related changes in the thymus gland: CT pathologic correlation. AJR 141:241–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mulvey RB (1963) The thymic “wave” sign. Radiology 81:834–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nahon JR (1955) Roentgenologic characteristics of the epipericardial fat pad, with a case report. Radiology 65:745–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Odman P (1953) The appearance of the internal mammary arteries in coarctation of the aorta. Acta Radiol 39:47–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Oh KS, Weber AL, Borden S IV (1971) Normal mediastinal mass in childhood. Radiology 101:625–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Pernkopf E (1963) Atlas of topographic and applied human anatomy, vol 2. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Peterson ROA, Cooper MD, Good RA (1965) The pathogenesis of immunologic deficiency disease. Am J Med 38:579–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pfister RC, Kook SO, Ferrucci JT (1970) Retrosternal density - a radiographic evaluation of the retrosternal - premediastinal space. Radiology 96:317–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Pond GD, Bjelland JC (1980) Enlarging pericardial fat pad mimicking tumor. J Can Assoc Radiol 31:267–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Price JE, Rigler LG (1970) Widening of the mediastinum resulting from fat accumulation. Radiology 96:497–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Proto AV, Rost RC Jr (1985) CT of the thorax: pitfalls in interpretation. RadioGraphics 5:693–812Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Pugatch RE, Faling LJ (1982) Computed tomography of the thorax: a status report. Chest 80:618–626Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Quottromani FL, Foley LC, Bowen A III, Weissman L, Hernandez J (1981) Fascial relationship of the thymus; radiologic-pathologic correlation in neonatal pneumomediastinum. AJR 137:1209–1211Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Raphael MJ (1963) Mediastinal hematoma - a description of some radiological appearances. Br J Radiol 36:921–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rogers JV, Leigh TF (1953) Differential diagnosis of right cardiophrenic angle masses. Radiology 61:871–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rosai J, Higa E (1972) Mediastinal endocrine neoplasm, of probable thymic origin, related to carcinoid tumor. Clinicopathologic study of 8 cases. Cancer 29:1061–1074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rubin P, Bunyagidj S, Poulter C (1971) Internal mammary lymph node metastases in breast cancer : detection and management. Am J Roentgenol 111:588–598Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sandor F (1967) Incidence and significance of traumatic mediastinal hematoma. Thorax 22:43–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Scheff S, LaForet EG (1966) The internal thoracic muscle and the lateral chest roentgenogram. Radiology 86:27–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Seltzer SE, D’Orsi C, Kirshner R, DeWeese JA (1981) Traumatic aortic rupture: plain radiographic findings. AJR 137:1011–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Serry C, Bleck P, Javid H, Hunter JA, Goldin MD, Delaria GA, Najafi H (1980) Sternal wound complications. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 80:861–867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Shea WJ Jr, deGeer G, Webb WR (1987) Chest wall after mastectomy. I CT appearance of normal postoperative anatomy, post irradiation changes and optimal scanning techniques. Radiology 162:157–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Shea WJ Jr, deGeer G, Webb WR (1987) Chest wall after mastectomy. II CT appearance after tumor recurrence. AJR 162:162–164Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Shopfner CE, Jansen C, O’Kell RT (1968) Roentgen significance of transverse thoracic muscle. Am J Roentgenol 103:140–148Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Slawson R, Aygun C, Carbone D, Hafiz M, Attar S, Whitley N (1983) Primary mediastinal seminoma. RadioGraphics 3:100–106Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sone S, Higashihara T, Morimoto S, Yokota K, Ikezoe J, Masaoka A, Monden Y, Kagotani T (1980) Normal anatomy of thymus and anterior mediastinum by pneumomediastinography. AJR 134:81–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sone S, Higashihara T, Morimoto S, Yokota K, Ikezoe J, Oomine H, Arisawa J, Monden Y, Nakahara K (1982) Potential spaces of the mediastinum: CT pneumomediastinography. AJR 138:1051–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Souadjian JV, Enriquez P, Silverstein MN, Pepin JM (1974) The spectrum of diseases associated with thymoma: coincidence or syndrome? Arch Intern Med 134:374–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Stilwell ME, Weisbrod GL, Lives R (1981) Spontaneous mediastinal hematoma. J Can Assoc Radiol 32:60–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Streiter ML, Schneider HJ, Proto AV (1982) Steroid-induced thoracic lipomatosis: paraspinal involvement. AJR 139:679–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Strickland B (1967) Intrathoracic Hodgkin’s disease. II. Peripheral manifestations of Hodgkin’s disease in the chest. Br J Radiol 40:930–938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Teates CD (1970) Steroid-induced mediastinal lipomatosis. Radiology 96:501–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Teplick JG, Nedwich A, Haskin ME (1973) Roent-genographic features of thymolipoma. Am J Roentgenol 117:873–877Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Torrance DJ (1955) Demonstration of subepicardial fat as an aid in diagnosis of pericardial effusion or thickening. Am J Roentgenol 74:850–855Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Urban JA (1959) Clinical experience and results of excision of internal mammary lymph node chain in primary operable breast cancer. Cancer 12:14–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Urban JA, Marjani MA (1971) Significance of internal mammary lymph node metastases in breast cancer. Am J Roentgenol 111: 130–136Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Vock P, Hodler J (1986) Cardiophrenic angle adenopathy: update of causes and significance. Radiology 159:395–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Walter E, Hubener KH (1980) Computerized tomographic characteristics of space occupying lesions in the anterior mediastinum and their differential diagnosis. ROFO 133:391–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Warwick R, Williams PR (1973) Gray’s anatomy, 35th edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Weinstein JB, Aronberg D, Sagel SS (1983) CT of fibrosing mediastinitis: findings and their utility. AJR 141:247–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Whalen JP, Meyers MA, Oliphant M, Caragol WJ, Evans JA (1973) The retrosternal line: a new sign of an anterior mediastinal mass. Am J Roentgenol 117:861–872Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Whalen JP, Oliphant M, Evans JA (1975) Anterior extrapleural line; superior extension. Radiology 115:525–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    White JJ, Kaback MM, Haller JA (1968) Diagnosis and excision of an intrapericardial teratoma in an infant. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 55:704–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Woodring JH, Pulmano CM, Stevens RK (1982) Right paratracheal stripe in blunt chest trauma. Radiology 143:605–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Woodring JH, Loh FK, Kryscio RJ (1984) Mediastinal hemorrhage: an evaluation of radiographic manifestations. Radiology 151:15–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Young R, Pochaczevsky R, Poliak L, Bryk D (1973) Cervico-mediastinal thymic cysts. Am J Roentgenol 117:855–860Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Yulish BS, Owens RP (1980) Thymic enlargement in a child during therapy for primary hypothyroidism. Am J Roentgenol 135:157–158Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Zerhouni EA, Scott WW Jr, Baker RR, Wharam MP, Siegelman SS (1982) Invasive thymomas: diagnosis and evaluation by computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 6:92–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ziter FMH (1977) Major thoracic dehiscence: radiologic considerations. Radiology 122:587–590PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Robert Heitzman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyState University of New York Health Science Center University HospitalSyracuseUSA

Personalised recommendations