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Papillomviren und Tumorkrankheiten des Menschen

  • H. Pfister

Zusammenfassung

Papillomviren sind seit langem bekannt als Erreger von Hautwarzen, spitzen Kondylomen und Larynxpa-pillomen. Erst mit Hilfe molekularbiologischer Techniken konnte jedoch im Verlauf der letzten Jahre die große Vielfalt dieser Virusgruppe aufgezeigt werden. Sie umfaßt gegenwärtig 40 Typen, die für unterschiedliche Krankheitsbilder verantwortlich sind. In einer Reihe von Tumoren mit vorher unklarer Genese wurden neue Virustypen identifiziert und charakterisiert, u. a. in Dysplasien der Cervix uteri, bowenoiden Papeln, in fokalen epithelialen Hyperplasien und Leukoplakien der Mundschleimhaut, in Keratoacanthomen, solaren Keratosen sowie in Conjunctivpapillomen. Es gibt auch erste Hinweise auf klinisch inapparente Papillomvirusinfektionen. Besonderes Interesse verdienen Tumoren, die zu Carcinomen entarten können. In mehr als 90% der Cervixcarcinome und der Hautcarcinome von Pat. mit Epidermodysplasia verruciformis findet man die Nucleinsäure bestimmter Papillom virustypen. Dies könnte auf ein cancer ogenes Potential solcher Vertreter hinweisen. In diesem Fall käme einer diagnostischen Virustypisierung bei der Früherkennung von Carcinomen große Bedeutung zu.

Summary

Papillomaviruses are well known as etiologic agents of skin warts, condylomata acuminata and laryngeal papillomas. Only during the past few years however it was possible to demonstrate the amazing plurality of this virus group using techniques of molecular biology. At present the genus comprises 40 types, which are responsible for different disease patterns. New virus types were identified and characterized in a series of tumors of previously uncertain etiology, as for example in dysplasias of the cervix uteri, bowenoid papules, in focal epithelial hyperplasias and leukoplakias of the oral mucosa, in keratoacanthomas, solar keratosis, as well as in conjunctival papillomas. There is also first evidence for clinically inapparent papillomavirus infections. Tumors which may progress to carcinomas deserve special interest. The nucleic acid of certain papillomavirus types was detected in more than 90% of cervical carcinomas and of skin cancers from patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. This may point to a cancerogenic potential of such representatives. In this case a diagnostic virus classification would be very important for early detection of carcinomas.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Pfister
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Klinische VirologieUniversität ErlangenErlangenDeutschland

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