Choline Acetyltransferase and the Synthesis of Acetylcholine

  • S. Tuček
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 86)


Soon after the discovery that acetylcholine (ACh) mediates synaptic transmission in sympathetic ganglia, Brown and Feldberg (1936) noted that the amount of ACh released from perfused stimulated ganglia during their experiments was several-fold higher than the amount of ACh that had been present in the ganglia at the start of the experiments. It became apparent from this and other observations that ACh is synthesized in the nerve terminals which use it as their transmitter and that the rate of its synthesis varies so as to keep the stores of ACh in the nerve terminals at a constant level under most physiological conditions. Systematic studies of the process of ACh synthesis were started by Quastel and Mann (Quastel et al. 1936, Mann et al. 1938, 1939) and by Stedman and Stedman (1937). In a few years, Nachmansohn and Machado (1943) proved able to demonstrate the synthesis of ACh in cell-free tissue extracts with added ATP, acetate and choline; they ascribed the synthesis to the activity of a new enzyme which they called ‘choline acetylase’. It has been clarified in the following work that at least two enzymes must have been active in the system used by Nachmansohn and Machado (1943), one enzyme producing acetylcoenzyme A (AcCoA) from acetate, coenzyme A (CoA) and ATP (AcCoA synthetase by the present nomenclature), and another enzyme producing ACh from AcCoA and choline. The name of choline acetylase was preserved for the latter enzyme and was modified to choline acetyltransferase (acetyl-CoA: choline-O-acetyltransferase, EC (ChAT) in the EC-IUB enzyme nomenclature.


Sympathetic Ganglion Choline Acetyltransferase Electric Organ Choline Uptake Choline Transport 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abra RM, Quinn PJ (1975) A novel pathway for phosphatidylcholine catabolism in rat brain homogenates. Biochim Biophys Acta 380:436–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Nasser I, Crompton M (1986) The reversible Ca2+-induced permeabilization of rat liver mitochondria. Biochem J 239:19–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ansell GB, Spanner S (1982) Choline transport and metabolism in the brain. In: Horrocks LA, Ansell GB, Porcellati G (eds) Phospholipids in the nervous system, vol. I: Metabolism. Raven, New York, pp 137–144Google Scholar
  4. Antonelli T, Beani L, Bianchi C, Pedata F, Pepeu G (1981) Changes in synaptosomal high affinity choline uptake following electrical stimulation of guinea-pig cortical slices: effect of atropine and physostigmine. Br J Pharmacol 74:525–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aquilonius S-M, Windbladh B (1972) Cerebrospinal fluid clearance of choline and some other amines. Acta Physiol Scand 85:78–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aquilonius S-M, Schuberth J, Sundwall A (1970) Choline in the cerebrospinal fluid as a marker for the release of acetylcholine. In: Heilbronn E, Winter A (eds) Drugs and cholinergic mechanisms in the CNS. Almquist and Wiksell, Stockholm, pp 399–410Google Scholar
  7. Aquilonius S-M, Flentge F, Schuberth J, Sparf B, Sundwall A (1973) Synthesis of acetylcholine in different compartments of brain nerve terminals in vivo as studied by the incorporation of choline from plasma and the effects of pentobarbital on this process. J Neurochem 20:1509–1521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aquilonius S-M, Ceder G, Lying-Tunell U, Malmlund HO, Schuberth J (1975) The arteriovenous difference of choline across the brain of man. Brain Res 99:430–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Atweh S, Simon JR, Kuhar MJ (1975) Utilization of sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake in vitro as a measure of the activity of cholinergic neurons in vivo. Life Sci 17:1535–1544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Badamchian M, Carroll PT (1985) Molecular weight determinations of soluble and membrane-bound fractions of choline-O-acetyltransferase in rat brain. J Neurosci 5:1955–1964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Banns H, Hebb C, Mann SP (1977) The synthesis of ACh from acetyl-CoA, acetyl-dephospho-CoA and acetylpantetheine phosphate by choline acetyltransferase. J Neurochem 29:433–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barker LA (1976) Modulation of synaptosomal high affinity choline transport. Life Sci 17:1535–1544Google Scholar
  13. Baux G, Simonneau M, Tauc L (1979) Transmitter release: ruthenium red used to demonstrate a possible role of sialic acid containing substrates. J Physiol (Lond) 291:161–178Google Scholar
  14. Benishin CG, Carroll PT (1981 a) Acetylation of choline and homocholine by membrane-bound choline-O-acetyltransferase in mouse forebrain nerve endings. J Neurochem 36:732–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Benishin CG, Carroll PT (1981b) Differential sensitivity of soluble and membrane-bound forms of choline-O-acetyltransferase to inhibition by coenzyme A. Biochem Pharmacol 30:2483–2484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Benishin CG, Carroll PT (1983) Multiple forms of choline-O-acetyltransferase in mouse and rat brain: solubilization and characterization. J Neurochem 41:1030–1039PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benjamin AM, Quastel JH (1981) Acetylcholine synthesis in synaptosomes: mode of transfer of mitochondrial acetyl coenzyme A. Science 213:1495–1496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Benjamin AM, Murphy CRK, Quastel JH (1983) Calcium-dependent release of acetyl-coenzyme A from liver mitochondria. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 61:154–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Berman-Reisberg R (1957) Properties and biological significance of choline acetylase. Yale J Biol Med 29:403–435Google Scholar
  20. Bhatnagar SP, Macintosh FC (1960) Acetylcholine content of striated muscle. Proc Can Fed Biol Soc 3:12–13Google Scholar
  21. Bhatnagar SP, Macintosh FC (1967) Effects of quaternary bases and inorganic cations on acetylcholine synthesis in nervous tissue. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 45:249–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Birks RI (1963) The role of sodium ions in the metabolism of acetylcholine. Can J Biochem Physiol 41:2573–2597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Birks RI (1983) Activation of feline acetylcholine synthesis in the absence of release: dependence on sodium, calcium and the sodium pump. J Physiol (Lond) 344:347–357Google Scholar
  24. Birks RI (1985) Activation of acetylcholine synthesis in cat sympathetic ganglia: dependence on external choline and sodium-pump rate. J Physiol (Lond) 367:401–417Google Scholar
  25. Birks RI, Macintosh FC (1961) Acetylcholine metabolism of a sympathetic ganglion. Can J Biochem Physiol 39:787–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Birks R, Katz B, Miledi R (1960) Physiological and structural changes at the amphibian myoneural junction, in the course of nerve degeneration. J Physiol (Lond) 150:145–168Google Scholar
  27. Bligh J (1952) The level of free choline in plasma. J Physiol (Lond) 117:234–240Google Scholar
  28. Blusztajn JK, Wurtman RJ (1981) Choline biosynthesis by a preparation enriched in synaptosomes from rat brain. Nature 290:417–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Blusztajn JK, Wurtman RJ (1983) Choline and cholinergic neurons. Science 221:614–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Blusztajn JK, Zeisel SH, Wurtman RJ (1979) Synthesis of lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) from phosphatidylethanolamine in bovine brain. Brain Res 179:319–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bradbury M (1979) The concept of a blood brain barrier. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  32. Brandon C, Wu J-Y (1978) Purification and properties of choline acetyltransferase from Torpedo californica. J Neurochem 30:791–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Braun LD, Cornford EM, Oldendorf WH (1980) Newborn rabbit blood-brain barrier is selectively permeable and differs substantially from the adult. J Neurochem 34:147–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Breer H, Knipper M (1985) Choline fluxes in synaptosomal membrane vesicles. Cell Mol Neurobiol 5:285–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Brehm R, Corradetti R, Krahn V, Löffelholz K, Pepeu G (1985) Muscarinic mobilization of choline in rat cerebral cortex does not involve alterations of blood-brain barrier. Brain Res 345:306–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brown GL, Feldberg W (1936) The acetylcholine metabolism of a sympathetic ganglion. J Physiol (Lond) 88:265–283Google Scholar
  37. Browning ET, Schulman MP (1968) (14C)Acetylcholine synthesis by cortex slices of rat brain. J Neurochem 15:1391–1405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Bruce G, Hersh LB (1987) Studies on detergent released choline acetyltransferase from membrane fractions of rat and human brain. Neurochem Res 12:1059–1066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bruce G, Wainer BH, Hersh LB (1985) Immunoaffinity purification of human choline acetyltransferase: comparison of the brain and placental enzymes. J Neurochem 45:611–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Buchanan AG, Kanfer JN (1980) Topographical distribution of base exchange activities in rat brain subcellular fractions. J Neurochem 34:720–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Budai D, Říčný J, Kása P, Tuček S (1986) 4-(l-Naphthylvinyl)pyridine decreases brain acetylcholine in vivo, but does not alter the level of acetyl-CoA. J Neurochem 46:990–992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Carroll PT, Goldberg AM (1975) Relative importance of choline transport to spontaneous and potassium depolarized release of ACh. J Neurochem 25:523–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ceder G, Schuberth J (1977) In vivo formation and post-mortem changes of choline and acetylcholine in the brain of mice. Brain Res 128:580–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Chao L-P (1980) Choline acetyltansferase: purification and characterization. J Neurosci Res 5:85–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cheng S-C, Brunner EA (1978) Alteration of tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in rat brain slices by halothane. J Neurochem 30:1421–1430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cheng S-C, Nakamura R (1970) A study on the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the synthesis of acetylcholine in the lobster nerve. Biochem J 118:451–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Choi RL, Freeman JJ, Jenden DJ (1975) Kinetics of plasma choline in relation to turnover of brain choline and formation of acetylcholine. J Neurochem 24:735–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Clark JB, Booth RFG, Harvey SAK, Leong SF, Patel TB (1982) Compartmentation of the supply of the acetyl moiety for acetylcholine synthesis. In: Bradford HF (ed) Neurotransmitter interaction and compartmentation. Plenum, New York, pp 431–460Google Scholar
  49. Collier B (1986) Choline analogues: their use in studies of acetylcholine synthesis, storage and release. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 64:341–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Collier B, Ilson D (1977) The effect of preganglionic nerve stimulation on the accumulation of certain analogues of choline by a sympathetic ganglion. J Physiol (Lond) 264:489–509Google Scholar
  51. Collier B, Katz HS (1974) Acetylcholine synthesis from recaptured choline by a sympathetic ganglion. J Physiol (Lond) 238:639–655Google Scholar
  52. Collier B, Macintosh FC (1969) The source of choline for acetylcholine synthesis in a sympathetic ganglion. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 47:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Collier B, Poon P, Salehmoghaddam S (1972) The formation of choline and of acetylcholine by brain in vitro. J Neurochem 19:51–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Collier B, Kwok YN, Welner SA (1983) Increased acetylcholine synthesis and release following presynaptic activity in a sympathetic ganglion. J Neurochem 40:91–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Collier B, Welner SA, Říčný J, Araujo DM (1986) Acetylcholine synthesis and release by a sympathetic ganglion in the presence of 2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol (AH 5183). J Neurochem 46:822–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Cornford EM, Braun LD, Oldendorf WH (1978) Carrier mediated bloodbrain barrier transport of choline and certain choline analogs. J Neurochem 30:299–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Corradetti R, Lindmar R, Löffelholz K (1982) Physostigmine facilitates choline efflux from isolated heart and cortex in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol 85:123–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Corradetti R, Lindmar R, Löffelholz K (1983) Mobilization of cellular choline by stimulation of muscarinic receptors in isolated chicken heart and rat cortex in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 226:826–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Corthay J, Dunant Y, Eder L, Loctin F (1985) Incorporation of acetate into acetylcholine, acetylcarnitine, and amino acids in the Torpedo electric organ. J Neurochem 45:1809–1819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Cozzari C, Hartman BK (1980) Preparation of antibodies specific to choline acetyltransferase from bovine caudate nucleus and immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:7453–7457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Cozzari C, Hartman BK (1983 a) Choline acetyltransferase. Purification procedure and factors affecting chromatographic properties and enzyme stability. J Biol Chem 258:10010–10013Google Scholar
  62. Cozzari C, Hartman BK (1983 b) An endogenous inhibitory factor for choline acetyltransferase. Brain Res 276:109–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Crawford GD, Correa L, Salvaterra PM (1982a) Interaction of monoclonal antibodies with mammalian choline acetyltransferase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:7031–7035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Crawford GO, Slemmon JR, Salvaterra PM (1982 b) Monoclonal antibodies selective for Drosophila melanogaster choline acetyltransferase. J Biol Chem 257:3853–3856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Crews FT, Hirata F, Axelrod J (1980) Identification and properties of methyltransferases that synthesize phosphatidylcholine in rat brain synaptosomes. J Neurochem 34:1491–1498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Currier SF, Mautner HG (1974) On the mechanism of action of choline acetyltransferase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:3355–3358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Currier SF, Mautner HG (1977) Interaction of analogues of coenzyme A with choline acetyltransferase. Biochemistry 16:1944–1948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Dahlström A (1983) Presence, metabolism, and axonal transport of transmitters in peripheral mammalian axons. In: Lajtha A (ed) Handbook of neurochemistry, vol 5. Plenum, New York, pp 405–441Google Scholar
  69. Dainous F, Avola R, Hoffmann D, Louis J-C, Freysz L, Dreyfus H, Vincendon G, Massarelli R (1981) Synthèse de la choline dans les neurones. C R Acad Sci (Paris) [Série III] 293:781–783Google Scholar
  70. Dainous F, Freysz L, Mozzi R, Dreyfus H, Louis JC, Porcellati G, Massarelli R (1982) Synthesis of choline phospholipids in neuronal and glial cell cultures by the methylation pathway. FEBS Lett 146:221–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Das N, Srere PA (1972) Exchange of methyl protons of acetyl coenzyme A catalysed by adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase. Biochemistry 11:1534–1537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Davies LP, Whittaker VP, Zimmermann H (1987) Axonal transport in the electromotor nerves of Torpedo marmorata. Exp Brain Res 30:493–510Google Scholar
  73. Davson H (1970) A textbook of general physiology. Churchill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  74. De Robertis EDP (1964) Histophysiology of synapses and neurosecretion. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  75. Dietz GW, Salvaterra PM (1980) Purification and peptide mapping of rat brain choline acetyltransferase. J Biol Chem 255:10612–10617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Doležal V, Tuček S (1981) Utilization of citrate, acetylcarnitine, acetate, pyruvate and glucose for the synthesis of acetylcholine in rat brain slices. J Neurochem 36:1323–1330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Doležal V, Tuček S (1982) Effects of choline and glucose on atropine-induced alteration of acetylcholine synthesis and content in the brain of rats. Brain Res 240:285–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Doležal V, Tuček S (1983) The synthesis and release of acetylcholine in normal and denervated rat diaphragms during incubation in vitro. J Physiol 334:461–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Doležal V, Tuček S (1984) Activation of muscarinic receptors stimulates the release of choline from brain slices. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 120:1002–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Drahota Z, Hahn P, Mourek J, Trojanová M (1965) The effect of acetoacetate on oxygen consumption of brain slices from infant and adult rats. Physiol Bohemoslov 14:134–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Dreyfus P (1975) Identification de l’acétate comme précurseur du radical acétyle de Pacétylcholine des jonctions neuromusculaires du rat. C R Acad Sci (Paris) D280:1893–1894Google Scholar
  82. Driskell WJ, Weber BH, Roberts E (1978) Purification of choline acetyltransferase from Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurochem 30:1135–1141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Dross K, Kewitz H (1972) Concentration and origin of choline in the rat brain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 274:91–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ducis I, Whittaker VP (1985) High affinity, sodium-gradient-dependent transport of choline into vesiculated presynaptic plasma membrane fragments from the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata and reconstitution of the solubilized transporter into liposomes. Biochim Biophys Acta 815:109–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Dunant Y, Gautron J, Israël M, Lesbats B, Manaranche R (1974) Evolution de la décharge de l’organe électrique de la Torpille et variations simultanées de l’acétylcholine au cours de la stimulation. J Neurochem 23:635–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Dunant Y, Israël M, Lesbats B, Manaranche R (1977) Oscillation of acetylcholine during nerve activity in the Torpedo electric organ. Brain Res 125:123–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Eckenstein F, Thoenen H (1982) Production of specific antisera and monoclonal antibodies to choline acetyltransferase: characterization and use for identification of cholinergic neurons. EMBO J 1:363–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Eckenstein F, Barde Y-A, Thoenen H (1981) Production of specific antibodies to choline acetyltransferase purified from pig brain. Neuroscience 6:993–1000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Eckernäs S-A (1977) Plasma choline and cholinergic mechanisms in the brain. Acta Physiol Scand [Suppl] 449:1–62Google Scholar
  90. Eder-Colli L, Amato S (1985) Membrane-bound choline acetyltransferase in Torpedo electric organ: a marker for synaptosomal plasma membranes? Neuroscience 15:577–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Eder-Colli L, Amato S, Froment Y (1986) Amphiphilic and hydrophilic forms of choline-O-acetyltransferase in cholinergic nerve endings of the Torpedo. Neuroscience 19:275–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Eggerer H (1965) Zum Mechanismus der biologischen Umwandlung von Citronensäure. VI. Citrat-synthase ist eine Acetyl-CoA-Enolase. Biochem Z 343:111–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Ehrlich BE, Wright EM (1982) Choline and PAH transport across blood-CSF barriers: the effect of lithium. Brain Res 250:245–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Eisenstadt ML, Schwartz JH (1975) Metabolism of acetylcholine in the nervous system of Aplysia californica. III. Studies of an identified cholinergic neuron. J Gen Physiol 65:293–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Endemann G, Brunengraber H (1980) The source of acetyl coenzyme A for acetylcholine synthesis in the perfused rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm. J Biol Chem 255:11091–11093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Fitzgerald GG, Cooper JR (1967) Studies on acetylcholine in the corneal epithelium. Fed Proc Fed Am Soc Exp Biol 26:651Google Scholar
  97. Fonnum F (1966) Is choline acetyltransferase present in synaptic vesicles? Biochem Pharmacol 15:1641–1643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Fonnum F (1967) The ‘compartmentation’ of choline acetyltransferase within the synap-tosome. Biochem J 103:262–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Fonnum F (1968) Choline acetyltransferase binding to and release from membranes. Biochem J 109:389–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Fonnum F (1970) Surface charge of choline acetyltransferase from different species. J Neurochem 17:1095–1100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Fonnum F, Frizell M, Sjöstrand J (1973) Transport, turnover and distribution of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in the vagus and hypoglossal nerves of the rabbit. J Neurochem 21:1109–1120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Freeman JJ, Choi RL, Jenden DJ (1975) Plasma choline: its turnover and exchange with brain choline. J Neurochem 24:729–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Gaiti A, de Medio GE, Brunetti M, Amaducci L, Procellati G (1974) Properties and function of the calcium-dependent incorporation of choline, ethanolamine and serine into the phospholipids of isolated rat brain microsomes. J Neurochem 23:1153–1159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Glover VAS, Potter LT (1971) Purification and properties of choline acetyltransferase from ox brain striate nuclei. J Neurochem 18:571–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Gibson GE, Blass JP (1979) Proportional inhibition of acetylcholine synthesis accompanying impairment of 3-hydrobutyrate oxidation in rat brain. Biochem Pharmacol 28:133–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Gibson GE, Peterson C (1983) Acetylcholine and oxidative metabolism in septum and hippocampus in vitro. J Biol Chem 258:1142–1171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Gibson GE, Shimada M (1980) Studies on the metabolic pathway of the acetyl group for acetylcholine synthesis. Biochem Pharmacol 29:167–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Gibson GE, Jope R, Blass JP (1975) Decreased synthesis of acetylcholine accompanying impaired oxidation of pyruvic acid in rat brain minces. Biochem J 148:17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Goldberg AM, Hanin I (eds) (1976) Biology of cholinergic function. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  110. Goodman DR, Adatsi FK, Harbison RD (1984) Evidence for the extreme overestimation of choline acetyltransferase in human sperm, human seminal plasma and rat heart: a case of mistaking carnitine acetyltransferase for choline acetyltransferase. Chem Biol Interact 49:39–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Greenspan RJ (1980) Mutations of choline acetyltransferase and associated neural defects in Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Physiol 137:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Greville GD (1969) Intracellular compartmentation and the citric acid cycle. In: Lowenstein JM (ed) Citric acid cycle. Dekker, New York, pp 1–136Google Scholar
  113. Grewaal DS, Quastei JH (1973) Control of synthesis and release of radioactive acetylcholine in brain slices from the rat. Biochem J 132:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Growdon JH, Cohen EL, Wurtman RJ (1977) Effects of oral choline administration on serum and CSF choline levels in patients with Huntington’s disease. J Neurochem 28:229–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Gundersen CB, Jenden DJ, Miledi R (1985) Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine in Xenopus oocytes injected with mRNA from the electric lobe of Torpedo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:608–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Guyenet P, Lefresne P, Rossier J, Beaujouan JC, Glowinski J (1973) Inhibition by hemicholinium-3 of (14C)acetylcholine synthesis and (3H)choline high-affinity uptake in rat striatal synaptosomes. Mol Pharmacol 9:630–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Guynn RW (1976) Effect of ethanol on brain CoA and acetyl-CoA. J Neurochem 27:303–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Haga T, Noda H (1973) Choline uptake systems of rat brain synaptosomes. Biochim Biophys Acta 291:564–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Hanin I, Goldberg AM (eds) (1982) Progress in modern cholinergic biology; model cholinergic synapses. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  120. Hanin I, Schuberth J (1974) Labelling of acetylcholine in the brain of mice fed on a diet containing deuterium labelled choline: studies utilizing gas chromatography — mass spectrometry. J Neurochem 23:819–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Hansford RG, Castro F (1985) Role of Ca2+ in pyruvate dehydrogenase interconversion in brain mitochondria and synaptosomes. Biochem J 227:129–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Harvey SAK, Long SF, Clark JB (1982) Noncorrelation of choline kinase or ATP citrate lyase with cholinergic activity in rat brain. J Neurochem 39:1481–1484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hattori H, Kanfer JN (1985) Synaptosomal phospholipase D potential role in providing choline for acetylcholine synthesis. J Neurochem 45:1578–1584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Hattori H, Bansal VS, Orihel D, Kanfer JN (1984) Presence of phospholipid- N-methyltransferases and base-exchange enzymes in rat central nervous system ax-olemma-enriched fractions. J Neurochem 43:1018–1024PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Haubrich DR (1976) Choline acetyltransferase and its inhibitors. In: Goldberg AM, Hanin I (eds) Biology of cholinergic function. Raven, New York, pp 239–268Google Scholar
  126. Haworth RA, Hunter DR (1979) The Ca2+-induced membrane transition in mitochondria. II. Nature of the Ca2+ trigger site. Arch Biochem Biophys 195:460–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Haworth RA, Hunter DR (1980) Allosteric inhibition of the Ca2+-activated hydrophilic channel of the mitochondrial membrane by nucleotides. J Membr Biol 54:231–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Hayashi H, Kato T (1978) Acetyl-CoA synthesizing enzyme activities in single nerve cell bodies of rabbit. J Neurochem 31:861–869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Hebb CO (1962) Acetylcholine content of the rabbit plantaris muscle after denervation. J Physiol (Lond) 163:294–306Google Scholar
  130. Hebb CO, Silver A (1956) Choline acetylase in the central nervous system of man and some other mammals. J Physiol (Lond) 134:718–728Google Scholar
  131. Hebb CO, Silver A (1970) Biochemical parameters of central cholinergic nerves, mapping the distribution of acetylcholine and the enzymes which control its metabolism in the brain. In: Tedeschi CG (ed) Neuropathology: methods and diagnosis. Little, Brown, Boston, pp 665–690Google Scholar
  132. Hebb CO, Whittaker VP (1958) Intracellular distribution of acetylcholine and choline acetylase. J Physiol (Lond) 142:187–196Google Scholar
  133. Hebb CO, Ling GM, McGeer EG, McGeer PL, Perkins D (1964) Effect of locally applied hemicholinium on the acetylcholine content of the caudate nucleus. Nature (Lond) 204:1309–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Hersh LB (1979) The lack of specificity towards salts in the activation of choline acetyltransferase from human placenta. J Neurochem 32:991–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Hersh LB (1980) Studies on the kinetic mechanism and salt activation of bovine brain choline acetyltransferase. J Neurochem 34:1077–1081PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Hersh LB (1982) Kinetic studies of the choline acetyltransferase reaction using isotope exchange at equilibrium. J Biol Chem 257:12820–12834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Hersh LB, Peet M (1977) Re-evaluation of the kinetic mechanism of the choline acetyltransferase reaction. J Biol Chem 252:4796–4802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Hersh LB, Peet M (1978) Effect of salts on the physical and kinetic properties of human placental choline acetyltransferase. J Neurochem 30:1087–1093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Hersh LB, Coe B, Casey L (1978 a) A fluorimetric assay for choline acetyltransferase and its use in the purification of the enzyme from human placenta. J Neurochem 30:1077–1085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Hersh LB, Barker LA, Rush B (1978 b) Effect of sodium chloride on changing the rate limiting step in the human placental choline acetyltransferase reaction. J Biol Chem 253:4966–4970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Hersh LB, Nair RV, Smith DJ (1979) The reaction of choline acetyltransferase with sulfhydryl reagents. Methoxycarbonyl-CoA disulphide as an active site-directed reagent. J Biol Chem 254:11988–11992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Hersh LB, Wainer BH, Andrews LP (1984) Multiple isoelectric and molecular weight variants of choline acetyltransferase. Artifact or real? J Biol Chem 259:1253–1264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Heumann R, Villegas J, Herzfeld DW (1981) Acetylcholine synthesis in the Schwann cell and axon in the giant nerve fiber of the squid. J Neurochem 36:765–768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Higgins AJ, Neal MJ (1982 a) Potassium activation of (3H)choline accumulation by isolated sympathetic ganglia of the rat. Br J Pharmacol 77:573–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Higgins AJ, Neal MJ (1982 b) Effect of potassium depolarization and pregaglionic nerve stimulation on the metabolism of (3H)choline in rat isolated sympathetic ganglia. Br J Pharmacol 77:581–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Houser CR, Crawford GD, Barber RP, Salvaterra PM, Vaughn JE (1983) Organization and morphological characteristics of cholinergic neurons: an immunocytochemical study with a monoclonal antibody to choline acetyltransferase. Brain Res 266:97–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Hunter DR, Haworth RA (1979 a) The Ca2+-induced membrane transition in mitochondria. I. The protective mechanisms. Arch Biochem Biophys 195:453–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Hunter DR, Haworth RA (1979b) The Ca2+-induced membrane transition in mitochondria. III. Transitional Ca2+-release. Arch Biochem Biophys 195:468–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Hunter DR, Haworth RA, Southard JH (1976) Relationship between configuration, function and permeability of calcium-treated mitochondria. J Biol Chem 251:5069–5077PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Husain SS, Mautner HG (1973) The purification of choline acetyltransferase of squid-head ganglia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70:3749–3753PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Ichikawa T, Ishida I, Deguchi T (1983) Monoclonal antibodies to choline acetyltransferase of rat brain. FEBS Lett 155:306–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Illingworth DR, Portman OW (1972) The uptake and metabolism of plasma lysophosphatidylcholine in vivo by the brain of squirrel monkeys. Biochem J 130:557–567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Israël M, Tuček S (1974) Utilization of acetate and pyruvate for the synthesis of “total”, “bound” and “free” acetylcholine in the electric organ of Torpedo. J Neurochem 22:487–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Israël M, Lesbats B, Manaranche R, Marsal J, Mastour-Frachon P, Meunier M (1977) Related changes in amounts of ACh and ATP in resting and active Torpedo nerve electroplaque synapses. J Neurochem 28:1259–1267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Itoh T, Quastel JH (1970) Acetoacetate metabolism in infant and adult rat brain in vitro. Biochem J 116:641–655Google Scholar
  156. Itoh N, Slemmon JR, Hawke DH, Williamson R, Morita E, Itakura K, Roberts E, Shively JE, Crawford GD, Salvaterra PM (1986) Cloning of Drosophila choline acetyltransferase cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:4081–4085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Jenden DJ, Jope RS, Weiler MH (1976) Regulation of acetylcholine synthesis: does cytoplasmic acetylcholine control high affinity choline uptake? Science 194:635–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Johnson CD, Epstein ML (1986) Monoclonal antibodies and polyvalent antiserum to chicken choline acetyltransferase. J Neurochem 46:968–976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Jope RS (1979) High affinity choline transport and acetyl-CoA production in brain and their roles in the regulation of acetylcholine synthesis. Brain Res Rev 1:313–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Jope RS (1982) Effects of phosphatidylcholine administration to rats on choline in blood and choline and acetylcholine in brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 220:322–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Jope RS, Weiler MH, Jenden DJ (1978) Regulation of acetylcholine synthesis: control of choline transport and acetylation in synaptosomes. J Neurochem 30:949–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Kása P (1986) The cholinergic systems in brain and spinal cord. Prog Neurobiol 26:211–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Kása P, Mann SP, Hebb C (1970) Localization of choline acetyltransferase. Nature (Lond) 226:812–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Kása P, Szepesy G, Gulya K, Bánsághy K, Rakonczay Z (1982) The effect of 4-(1-naphthylvinyl)-pyridine on the acetylcholine and on the number of synaptic vesicles in the central nervous system of the rat. Neurochem Int 4:185–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Kato AC, Lefresne P, Berwald-Netter Y, Beaujouan JC, Glowinski J, Gros F (1977) Choline stimulates the synthesis and accumulation of acetate in a cholinergic neuroblastoma clone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 78:350–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Kotyk A (1983) Coupling of secondary active transport with \(\Delta \overset {\sim}{\mu}_{H^+ \cdot}\). J Bioenerg Biomembr 15:307–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Kriebel ME, Matterson DR, Pappas GD (1978) Acetylcholine content in physiologically fatigued frog nerve-muscle preparations and in denervated muscle. Gen Pharmacol 9:229–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Krnjević K, Straughan DW (1964) The release of acetylcholine from the denervated rat diaphragm. J Physiol (Lond) 170:371–378Google Scholar
  169. Kuhar MJ (1979) Sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake. In: Tuček S (ed) The cholinergic synapse. Prog Brain Res 49:71–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Kuntscherová J, Vlk J (1968) Über die Bedeutung der Cholin- und Glukosezufuhr für die Normalisierung der durch Hungern herabgesetzten Acetylcholinvorräte in den Geweben. Plzen Lek Sb 31:5–12Google Scholar
  171. Kwok YN, Collier B (1982) Synthesis of acetylcholine from acetate in sympathetic ganglion. J Neurochem 39:16–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Ladinsky H, Consolo S, Peri G (1974) Effect of oxotremorine and physostigmine on choline levels in mouse whole brain, spleen and cerebellum. Biochem Pharmacol 23:1187–1193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Lanman RC, Schanker LS (1980) Transport of choline out of the cranial cerebrospinal fluid spaces of the rabbit. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 215:563–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Lefresne PL, Guyenet P, Glowinski J (1973) Acetylcholine synthesis from (2-14C)pyruvate in rat striatal slices. J Neurochem 20:1083–1097PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Lefresne PL, Guyenet P, Beaujouan JC, Glowinski J (1975) The subcellular localization of ACh synthesis in rat striatal synaptosomes investigated with the use of Triton X-100. J Neurochem 25:415–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Lefresne P, Hamon M, Beaujouan JC, Glowinski J (1977) Origin of the acetyl moiety of acetylcholine synthesized in rat striatal synaptosomes. Biochimie 59:197–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Levey AI, Aoki M, Fitch FW, Wainer BH (1981) The production of monoclonal antibodies reactive with bovine choline acetyltransferase. Brain Res 218:383–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Levey AI, Rye DB, Wainer BH (1982) Immunochemical studies of bovine and human choline-O-acetyltransferase using monoclonal antibodies. J Neurochem 39:1652–1659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Levey AI, Armstrong DM, Atweh SF, Terry RD, Wainer BH (1983) Monoclonal antibodies to choline acetyltransferase: production, specificity, and immunohistochemistry. J Neurosci 3:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Lewartowski B, Bielecki K (1963) The influence of hemicholinium No. 3 and vagal stimulation on acetylcholine content of rabbit atria. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 142:24–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Lindmar R, Löffelholz K, Pompetzki H (1977) Acetylcholine overflow during infusion of a high potassium-low sodium solution into the perfused chicken heart in the absence and presence of physostigmine. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 229:17–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Lindmar R, Löffelholz K, Weide W, Witzke J (1980) Neuronal uptake of choline following release of acetylcholine in the perfused heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 215:710–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Lindmar R, Löffelholz K, Weide W, Weis S (1983) Evidence for bilateral vagal innervation of postganglionic parasympathetic neurons in chicken heart. J Neural Transm 56:239–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Lindmar R, Löffelholz K, Sandmann J (1986) Characterization of choline efflux from the perfused heart at rest and after muscarine receptor activation. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 332:224–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Low MG, Ferguson AJ, Futerman AH, Silman I (1986) Covalently attached phosphatidyl-inostitol as a hydrophobic anchor for membrane proteins. Trends Biochem Sci 11:212–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Lundgren G, Karlén B, Holmstedt B (1977) Acetylcholine and choline in mouse brain — influence of peripherally acting cholinergic drugs. Biochem Pharmacol 26:1607–1612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Macintosh FC, Collier B (1976) Neurochemistry of cholinergic terminals. In: Zaimis E (ed) Neuromuscular junction. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 99–228 (Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol 42)Google Scholar
  188. Malthe-Sørenssen D (1976) Choline acetyltansferase — evidence for acetyl transfer by a histidine residue. J Neurochem 27:873–881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Malthe-Sørenssen D (1979) Recent progress in the biochemistry of choline acetyltransferase. In: Tuček S (ed) The cholinergic synapse. Prog Brain Res 49:45–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Malthe-Sørenssen D, Lea T, Fonnum F, Eskeland T (1978) Molecular characterization of choline acetyltransferase from bovine brain caudate nucleus and some immunological properties of the highly purified enzyme. J Neurochem 30:35–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Mann PJG, Tennenbaum M, Quastel JH (1938) On the mechanism of acetylcholine formation in brain in vitro. Biochem J 32:243–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Mann PJG, Tennenbaum M, Quastel JH (1939) Acetylcholine metabolism in the central nervous system: the effects of potassium and other cations on acetylcholine liberation. Biochem J 33:822–835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Mann SP (1975) Distribution of glycerophosphorylcholine diesterase in rat brain. Experientia 31:1256–1258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Mann SP, Bennett RC (1979) The fate of choline in the circulating plasma of the rat. Experientia 35:211–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Mann SP, Hebb C (1977) Free choline in the brain of the rat. J Neurochem 28:241–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Marchbanks RM (1982) The activation of presynaptic choline uptake by acetylcholine release. J Physiol (Paris) 78:373–378Google Scholar
  197. Marchbanks RM, Wonnacott S, Rubio MA (1981) The effect of acetylcholine release on choline fluxes in isolated synaptic terminals. J Neurochem 36:379–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Mautner HG (1977) Choline acetyltransferase. CRC Crit Rev Biochem 4:341–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Mautner HG (1980) Acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase. Neurochem Int 2:123–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Mautner HG (1986) Choline acetyltransferase. In: Boulton AA, Baker GB, Yu PH (eds) Neurotransmitter enzymes. Humana, Clifton, pp 273–317 (Neuromethods, vol 5)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Mautner HG, Merrill RE, Currier SF, Harvey G (1981 a) Interaction of aromatic dyes with the coenzyme A binding site of choline acetyltransferase. J Med Chem 24:1534–1537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Mautner HG, Pakula AA, Merrill RE (1981 b) Evidence for presence of an arginine residue in the coenzyme A binding site of choline acetyltransferase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:7449–7452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. McCaman RE, Rodriguez de Lores Arnaiz G, de Robertis E (1965) Species differences in subcellular distribution of choline acetylase in the CNS. J Neurochem 12:927–935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. McCormack JG (1985) Characterization of the effects of Ca2+ on the intramitochondrial Ca2+-sensitive enzymes from rat liver and within intact rat liver mitochondria. Biochem J 231:581–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. McGee R, Simpson P, Christian C, Mata M, Nelson P, Nirenberg M (1978) Regulation of acetylcholine release from neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:1314–1318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. McGeer PL, McGeer EG, Peng JH (1984) Choline acetyltransferase: purification and im- munohistochemical localization. Life Sci 34:2319–2338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Meyer EM Jr, Engel DA, Cooper JR (1982) Acetylation and phosphorylation of choline following high or low affinity uptake by rat cortical synaptosomes. Neurochem Res 7:749–759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Miledi R, Molenaar PC, Polak RL (1977) An analysis of acetylcholine in frog muscle by mass fragmentography. Proc R Soc Lond 197:285–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Miledi R, Molenaar PC, Polak RL (1982 a) Free and bound acetylcholine in frog muscle. J Physiol 333:189–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Miledi R, Molenaar PC, Polak RL, Tas JWM, van der Laaken T (1982b) Neural and non-neural acetylcholine in the rat diaphragm. Proc R Soc Lond B 214:153–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Millington WR, Goldberg AM (1982) Precursor dependence of acetylcholine release from rat brain in vitro. Brain Res 243:263–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Mitchell JF, Silver A (1963) The spontaneous release of acetylcholine from the denervated hemidiaphragm of the rat. J Physiol (Lond) 165:117–129Google Scholar
  213. Mitzen EJ, Koeppen AH (1984) Malonate, malonyl-coenzyme A, and acetyl-coenzyme A in developing rat brain. J Neurochem 43:499–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Morel N (1975) Incorporation d’acétate dans l’acétylcholine de l’organe électrique de Torpille: effets des concentrations d’acétate et de choline. C R Acad Sci D 280:999–1001Google Scholar
  215. Morel N, Israël M, Manaranche R, Masour-Frachon P (1977) Isolation of pure cholinergic nerve endings from Torpedo electric organ. J Cell Biol 75:43–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Morris D, Tuček S (1966) The influence of inorganic cations on the activities of choline acetyltransferase, phosphate acetyltransferase and acetylphosphatase. J Neurochem 13:333–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Mozzi R, Porcellati G (1979) Conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine in rat brain by the methylation pathway. FEBS Lett 100:363–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Mozzi R, Siepi D, Andreoli V, Piccinin GL, Porcellati G (1981) N-methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine in different brain areas of the rat. Bull Mol Biol Med 6:6–15Google Scholar
  219. Murrin LC (1980) High affinity transport of choline in neuronal tissue. Pharmacology 21:132–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Murrin LC, Kuhar MJ (1976) Activation of high-affinity choline uptake in vitro by depolarizing agents. Mol Pharmacol 12:1082–1090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Murrin LC, DeHaven RN, Kuhar MJ (1977) On the relationship between (3H) choline uptake activation and (3H)acetylcholine release. J Neurochem 29:681–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Nachmansohn D, Machado AL (1943) The formation of acetylcholine. A new enzyme: ‘choline acetylase’. J Neurophysiol 6:397–403Google Scholar
  223. Nagai T, Pearson T, Peng F, McGeer EG, McGeer PL (1983) Immunohistochemical staining of the human forebrain with monoclonal antibody to human choline acetyltransferase. Brain Res 265:300–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Nakamura R, Cheng S-C, Naruse H (1970) A study on the precursors of the acetyl moiety of acetylcholine in brain slices. Biochem J 118:443–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. O’Regan S (1983) Uptake of acetate and propionate by isolated nerve endings from the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata and their incorporation into choline esters. J Neurochem 41:1596–1601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. O’Regan S (1984) Evaluation of acetate uptake and its relative conversion to acetylcholine in Torpedo electric organ synaptosomes under different ionic and metabolic conditions. Neurochem Int 6:339–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. O’Regan S, Collier B (1981) Factors affecting choline transport by the superior cervical ganglion during and following stimulation, and the relationship between choline uptake and acetylcholine synthesis. Neuroscience 6:511–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. O’Regan S, Vyas S (1986) Modifications in choline transport activity as a function of membrane potential and the sodium gradient. J Physiol (Paris) 81:325–331Google Scholar
  229. O’Regan S, Collier B, Israël M (1982) Studies on presynaptic cholinergic mechanisms using analogues of choline and acetate. J Physiol (Paris) 78:454–460Google Scholar
  230. Paetzke-Brunner I, Schön H, Wieland OH (1978) Insulin activates pyruvate dehydrogenase by lowering the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio as evidenced by digitonin fractionation of isolated fat cells. FEBS Lett 93:307–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Pardridge WM, Cornford EM, Braun LD, Oldendorf WH (1979) Transport of choline and choline analogues through the blood-brain barrier. In: Barbeau A, Growdon JH, Wurtman RJ (eds) Nutrition and the brain, vol 5. Raven, New York, pp 25–34Google Scholar
  232. Parnavelas JG, Kelly W, Burnstock G (1985) Ultrastructural localization of choline acetyltransferase in vascular endothelial cells in rat brain. Nature 316:724–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Paton WDM, Vizi ES, Zar MA (1971) The mechanism of acetylcholine release from parasympathetic nerves. J Physiol 215:819–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Peng JH, McGeer PL, Kimura H, Sung SC, McGeer EG (1980) Purification and immunochemical properties of choline acetyltransferase from human brain. Neurochem Res 5:943–962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Peng JH, McGeer PL, McGeer EG (1983) Anti-human choline acetyltransferase fragments: antigen binding (Fab) Sepharose chromatography for enzyme purification. Neurochem Res 8:1481–1486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Peng JH, McGeer PL, McGeer EG (1986) Membrane-bound choline acetyltransferase from human brain: purification and properties. Neurochem Res 11:959–971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Percy AK, Moore JF, Waechtler CJ (1982) Properties of particulate and detergent- solubilized phospholipid N-methyltransferase activity from calf brain. J Neurochem 38:1404–1412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Peterson C, Goldman JE (1986) In vitro acetylcholine synthesis and oxidative metabolism during development of normal and brindled mouse brain. Dev Brain Res 29:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Peterson GR, Webster GW, Shuster L (1973) Characteristics of choline acetyltransferase and cholinesterases in two types of cultured cells from embryonic chick brain. Dev Biol 34:119–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Pieklik JR, Guynn RW (1975) Equilibrium constants of the reactions of choline acetyltransferase, carnitine acetyltransferase, and acetylcholinesterase under physiological conditions. J Biol Chem 250:4445–4450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Polak RL, Molenaar PC, van Gelder M (1977) Acetylcholine metabolism and choline uptake in cortical slices. J Neurochem 29:477–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Polak RL, Sellin LC, Thesleff S (1981) Acetylcholine content and release in denervated or botulinum poisoned rat skeletal muscle. J Physiol 319:253–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Potter LT (1968) Uptake of choline by nerve endings isolated from the rat cerebral cortex. In: Campbell PN (ed) The interaction of drugs and subcellular components of animal cells. Churchill, London, pp 293–304Google Scholar
  244. Potter LT (1970) Synthesis, storage and release of (14C)acetylcholine in isolated rat diaphragm muscles. J Physiol 206:145–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Potter LT, Glover VAS, Saelens JK (1968) Choline acetyltransferase from rat brain. J Biol Chem 243:3864–3870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Quastel JH (1978) Source of the acetyl group in acetylcholine. In: Jenden DJ (ed) Cholinergic mechanisms and psychopharmacology. Plenum, New York, pp 411–430Google Scholar
  247. Quastel JH, Tennenbaum M, Wheatley AHM (1936) Choline ester formation in, and choline esterase activities of, tissues in vitro. Biochem J 30:1668–1681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Richardson PJ (1986) Choline uptake and metabolism in affinity-purified cholinergic nerve terminals from rat brain. J Neurochem 46:1251–1255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Richter D, Crossland J (1949) Variation in acetylcholine content of the brain with physiological state. Am J Physiol 159:247–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Richter JA (1976) Characteristics of acetylcholine release by superfused slices of rat brain. J Neurochem 26:791–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Richter JA, Gormley JM, Holtman JR, Simon JR (1982) High-affinity choline uptake in the hippocampus: its relationship to the physiological state produced by administration of barbiturates. J Neurochem 39:1440–1445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Říčný J, Tuček S (1980 a) Acetylcoenzyme A in the brain: radio-enzymatic determination, use of microwaves, and postmortem changes. Anal Biochem 103:369–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Říčný J, Tuček S (1980 b) Relation between the content of acetylcoenzyme A and acetylcholine in brain slices. Biochem J 188:683–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Říčný J, Tuček S (1981) Acetylcoenzyme A and acetylcholine in slices of rat caudate nuclei incubated in the presence of metabolic inhibitors. J Biol Chem 256:4919–4923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Říčný J, Tuček S (1982) Acetylcoenzyme A and acetylcholine in slices of rat caudate nuclei incubated with (−)-hydroxycitrate, citrate and EGTA. J Neurochem 39:668–673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Říčný J, Tuček S (1983) Ca2+ ions and the output of acetylcoenzyme A from brain mitochondria. Gen Physiol Biophys 2:27–37Google Scholar
  257. Roskoski R (1973) Choline acetyltransferase. Evidence for an acetylenzyme reaction intermediate. Biochemistry 12:3709–3714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Roskoski R (1974) Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase: evidence for essential histidine residues. Biochemistry 13:5141–5144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Roskoski R (1978) Acceleration of choline uptake after depolarization-induced acetylcholine release in rat cortical synaptosomes. J Neurochem 30:1357–1361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Roskoski R, Lim C-T, Martinsek Roskoski L (1975) Human brain and placental choline acetyltransferase purification and properties. Biochemistry 14:5105–5110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Ross ME, Park DH, Teitelman G, Pickel VM, Reis DJ, Joh TH (1983) Immunohistochemical localization of choline acetyltransferase using a monoclonal antibody: a radioautographic method. Neuroscience 10:907–922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Rossier J (1976) Biophysical properties of rat brain choline acetyltransferase. J Neurochem 26:555–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Rossier J (1977 a) Choline acetyltransferase: a review with special reference to its cellular and subcellular localization. Int Rev Neurobiol 20:283–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Rossier J (1977 b) Acetyl-coenzyme A and coenzyme A analogues: their effects on rat brain choline acetyltransferase. Biochem J 165:321–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Ryan RL, McClure WO (1979) Purification of choline acetyltransferase from rat and cow brain. Biochemistry 18:5357–5365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Ryan RL, McClure WO (1980) Physical and kinetic properties of choline acetyltransferase from rat and bovine brain. J Neurochem 34:395–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Sacchi O, Consolo S, Peri G, Prigioni I, Ladinsky H, Perri V (1978) Storage and release of acetylcholine in the isolated superior cervical ganglion of the rat. Brain Res 151:443–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Salvaterra PM, McCaman RE (1985) Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine levels in Drosophila melanogaster: a study using two temperature-sensitive mutants. J Neurosci 5:903–910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Sastry BVR, Sadavongvivad C (1979) Cholinergic systems in non-nervous tissues. Pharmacol Rev 30:65–132Google Scholar
  270. Schmidt DE, Wecker L (1981) CNS effects of choline administration: evidence for temporal dependence. Neuropharmacology 20:535–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Schubert D, Heinemann S, Carlisle W, Tarikas H, Kimes B, Patrick J, Steinbach JH, Culp W, Brandt BL (1974) Clonal cell lines from the rat central nervous system. Nature (Lond) 249:224–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Schuberth J, Jenden DJ (1975) Transport of choline from plasma to cerebrospinal fluid in the rabbit with reference to the origin of choline and to acetylcholine metabolism in brain. Brain Res 84:245–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Schuberth J, Sundwall A (1971) A method for the determination of choline in biological materials. Acta Pharmacol 29[Suppl 4]:51Google Scholar
  274. Schuberth J, Sparf B, Sundwall A (1970) On the turnover of acetylcholine in nerve endings of mouse brain in vivo. J Neurochem 17:461–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Severin SE, Artenie V (1967) Extraction, partial purification and some properties of choline acetyltransferase from rabbit brain (in Russian). Biokhimiia 32:125–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Simon JR, Kuhar MJ (1975) Impulse-flow regulation of high affinity choline uptake in brain cholinergic nerve terminals. Nature 255:162–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Simon JR, Mittag TW, Kuhar ML (1975) Inhibition of synaptosomal uptake of choline by various choline analogs. Biochem Pharmacol 24:1139–1142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Simon JR, Atweh S, Kuhar MJ (1976) Sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake: a regulatory step in the synthesis of acetylcholine. J Neurochem 26:909–922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Singh VK, van Alstyne D (1978) Glial cells from normal adult rat brain established in continous culture. Brain Res 155:418–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Skurdal DN, Cornatzer WE (1975) Choline phosphotransferase and phosphatidyl ethanolamine methyltransferase activities. Int J Biochem 13:887–892Google Scholar
  281. Slaviková J, Tuček S (1982) Choline acetyltransferase in the heart of adult rats. Pflugers Arch 392:225–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Slemmon JR, Salvaterra PM, Crawford GD, Roberts E (1982) Purification of choline acetyltransferase from Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem 257:3847–3852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Slemmon JR, Salvaterra PM, Roberts E (1984) Molecular characterization of choline acetyltransferase from Drosophila melanogaster. Neurochem Int 6:519–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Smith PC, Carroll PT (1980) A comparison of solubilized and membrane bound forms of choline-O-acetyltransferase (EC in mouse brain nerve endings. Brain Res 185:363–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Sollenberg J, Sörbo B (1970) On the origin of the acetyl moiety of acetylcholine in brain studied with a differential labelling technique using 3H-14C-mixed labelled glucose and acetate. J Neurochem 17:201–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Somogyi GT, Vizi ES, Knoll J (1977) Effect of hemicholinium-3 on the release and net synthesis of acetylcholine in Auerbach’s plexus of guinea pig ileum. Neuroscience 2:791–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Spanner S, Hall RC, Ansell B (1976) Arterio-venous differences of choline and choline lipids across the brain of rat and rabbit. Biochem J 154:133–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Speth RC, Yamamura HI (1979) Sodium dependent high affinity neuronal choline uptake. In: Barbeau A, Growdon JH, Wurtman RJ (eds) Nutrition and the brain, vol 5. Raven, New York, pp 129–139Google Scholar
  289. Srere PA (1967) A magnetic resonance study of the citrate synthase reaction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 26:609–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Stavinoha WB, Weintraub ST (1974 a) Estimation of choline and acetylcholine in tissue by pyrolysis gas chromatography. Anal Chem 46:757–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Stavinoha WB, Weintraub ST (1974b) Choline content of rat brain. Science 183:964–965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Stedman E, Stedman E (1937) The mechanism of the biological synthesis of acetylcholine. I. The isolation of acetylcholine produced by brain tissue in vitro. Biochem J 31:817–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Sterling GH, O’Neill JJ (1978) Citrate as the precursor of the acetyl moiety of acetylcholine. J Neurochem 31:525–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Sterling GH, McCafferty MR, O’Neill JJ (1981) β-Hydroxybutyrate as a precursor to the acetyl moiety of acetylcholine. J Neurochem 37:1250–1259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Sterri SH, Fonnum F (1980) Acetyl-CoA synthesizing enzymes in cholinergic nerve terminals. J Neurochem 35:249–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Strauss WL, Nirenberg M (1985) Inhibition of choline acetyltransferase by monoclonal antibodies. J Neurosci 5:175–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Su YYT, Wu J-Y, Lam DMK (1980) Purification and some properties of choline acetyltransferase from catfish brain. J Neurochem 34:438–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Suszkiw JB, Beach RL, Pilar GR (1976) Choline uptake by cholinergic neuron cell somas. J Neurochem 26:1123–1131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Szutowicz A, Lysiak W (1980) Regional and subcellular distribution of ATP-citrate lyase and other enzymes of acetyl-CoA metabolism in rat brain. J Neurochem 35:775–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Szutowicz A, Bielarcyk H, Lysiak W (1981) The role of citrate derived from glucose in the acetylcholine synthesis in rat brain synaptosomes. Int J Biochem 13:887–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Szutowicz A, Srere PA, Allen CN, Crawford IL (1982 a) Effects of septal lesions on enzymes of acetyl-CoA metabolism in the cholinergic system of the rat hippocampus. J Neurochem 39:458–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Szutowicz A, Stepień M, Bielarczyk H, Kabata J, Lysiak W (1982b) ATP citrate lyase in cholinergic nerve endings. Neurochem Res 7:799–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Szutowicz A, Morrison MR, Srere PA (1983 a) The enzymes of acetyl-CoA metabolism in differentiating cholinergic (S-20) and noncholinergic (NIE-115) neuroblastoma cells. J Neurochem 40:1664–1670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Szutowicz A, Harris NF, Srere PA, Crawford IL (1983 b) ATP-citrate lyase and other enzymes of acetyl-CoA metabolism in fractions of small and large synaptosomes from rat brain hippocampus and cerebellum. J Neurochem 41:1502–1505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Tacconi M, Wurtman RJ (1985) Phosphatidylcholine produced in rat synaptosomes by N-methylation is enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:4828–4831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Tochino Y, Schanker LS (1965) Active transport of quaternary ammonium compounds by the choroid plexus in vitro. Am J Physiol 208:666–673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Tochino Y, Schanker LS (1966) Serum and tissue factors that inhibit amine transport by the choroid plexus in vitro. Am J Physiol 210:1229–1233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Trommer BA, Schmidt DE, Wecker L (1982) Exogenous choline enhances the synthesis of acetylcholine only under conditions of increased cholinergic neuronal activity. J Neurochem 39:1704–1709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Tuček S (1966 a) On subcellular localization and binding of choline acetyltransferase in the cholinergic nerve endings of the brain. J Neurochem 13:1317–1327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Tuček S (1966 b) On the question of the localization of choline acetyltransferase in synaptic vesicles. J Neurochem 13:1329–1332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Tuček S (1967 a) Observations on the subcellular distribution of choline acetyltransferase in the brain tissue of mammals and comparisons of acetylcholine synthesis from acetate and citrate in homogenates and nerve-endings fractions. J Neurochem 14:519–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Tuček S (1967 b) Subcellular distribution of acetyl-CoA synthetase, ATP citrate lyase, citrate synthase, choline acetyltransferase, fumarate hydratase and lactate dehydrogenase in mammalian brain tissue. J Neurochem 14:531–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Tuček S (1967 c) The use of choline acetyltransferase for measuring the synthesis of acetylcoenzyme A and its release from brain mitochondria. Biochem J 104:749–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Tuček S (1967 d) Activation of choline acetyltransferase in subcellular fractions of the brain by hyposmotic treatment and by ether. Biochem Pharmacol 16:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Tuček S (1974) Transport and changes of activity of choline acetyltransferase in the peripheral stump of an interrupted nerve. Brain Res 82:249–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Tuček S (1975) Transport of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in the central stump and isolated segments of a peripheral nerve. Brain Res 86:259–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Tuček S (1978) Acetylcholine synthesis in neurons. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  318. Tuček S (ed) (1979) The cholinergic synapse. Prog Brain Res 49Google Scholar
  319. Tuček S (1982) The synthesis of acetylcholine in skeletal muscles of the rat. J Physiol 322:53–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Tuček S (1983 a) The synthesis of acetylcholine. In: Lajtha A (ed) Enzymes in the nervous system. Plenum, New York, pp 219–249 (Handbook of neurochemistry, 2nd edn, vol 4)Google Scholar
  321. Tuček S (1983 b) Acetylcoenzyme A and the synthesis of acetylcholine in neurons: review of recent progress. Gen Physiol Biophys 2:313–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Tuček S (1984) Problems in the organization and control of acetylcholine synthesis in brain neurons. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 44:1–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Tuček S (1985) Regulation of acetylcholine synthesis in the brain. J Neurochem 44:10–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Tuček S, Cheng S-C (1970) Precursors of acetyl groups in acetylcholine in the brain in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta 208:538–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Tuček S, Cheng S-C (1974) Provenance of the acetyl group of acetylcholine and compartmentation of acetyl-CoA and Krebs cycle intermediates in the brain in vivo. J Neurochem 22:893–914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Tuček S, Zelená J, Ge I, Vyskočil F (1978) Choline acetyltransferase in transected nerves, denervated muscles and Schwann cells of the frog: correlation of biochemical, electron microscopical and electrophysiological observations. Neuroscience 3:709–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Tuček S, Doležal V, Sullivan AC (1981) Inhibition of the synthesis of acetylcholine in rat brain slices by (−)-hydroxycitrate and citrate. J Neurochem 36:1331–1337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Tzagoloff A (1982) Mitochondria. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  329. Vaca K, Pilar G (1979) Mechanisms controlling choline transport and acetylcholine synthesis in motor nerve terminals during electric stimulation. J Gen Physiol 73:605–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Vyas S, O’Regan S (1985) Reconstitution of carrier-mediated choline transport in proteoliposomes prepared from presynaptic membranes of Torpedo electric organ, and its internal and external ionic requirements. J Membr Biol 85:111–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Wainer BH, Levey AI, Mufson EJ, Mesulam M-M (1984) Cholinergic systems in mammalian brain identified with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase. Neurochem Int 6:163–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Walum E (1981) Uptake and release of choline in cultures of human glioma cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol 1:389–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Weber BH, Hariri M, Martin D, Driskell WJ (1979) Enzymic properties of choline acetyltransferase from heads of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurochem 32:1597–1598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Wecker L, Schmidt DE (1980) Neuropharmacological consequences of choline administration. Brain Res 184:234–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Weiler MH, Jope RS, Jenden DJ (1978) Effect of pretreatment under various cationic conditions on acetylcholine content and choline transport in rat whole brain synaptosomes. J Neurochem 31:789–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Weiler MH, Gundersen CB, Jenden DJ (1981) Choline uptake and acetylcholine synthesis in synaptosomes: investigations using two different labelled variants of choline. J Neurochem 36:1802–1812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Weiler MH, Bak I J, Jenden DJ (1983) Choline and acetylcholine metabolism in rat neostriatal slices. J Neurochem 41:473–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Wetzel GT, Brown JH (1983) Relationships between choline uptake, acetylcholine synthesis and acetylcholine release in isolated rat atria. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 226:343–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. White HL, Wu JC (1973 a) Kinetics of choline acetyltransferase (EC from human and other mammalian central and peripheral nervous tissues. J Neurochem 20:297–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. White HL, Wu JC (1973 b) Choline and carnitine acetyltransferase of heart. Biochemistry 12:841–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Whittaker VP (1965) The application of subcellular fractionation techniques to the study of brain function. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 15:39–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Whittaker VP, Michaelson IA, Kirkland RJA (1964) The separation of synaptic vesicles from nerve-ending particles (‘synaptosomes’). Biochem J 90:293–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Wieland OH (1983) The mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: structure and regulation. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 96:123–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Willoughby J, Harvey SAK, Clark JB (1986) Compartmentation and regulation of acetylcholine synthesis at the synapse. Biochem J 235:215–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Witter B, Kanfer JN (1985) Hydrolysis of endogenous phospholipids by rat brain microsomes. J Neurochem 44:155–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Wonnacott S, Marchbanks RM (1976) Inhibition by botulinum toxin of depolarization-evoked release of [14C]acetylcholine from synaptosomes in vitro. Biochem J 156:701–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Wright EM (1978) Transport processes in the formation of the cerebrospinal fluid. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 83:1–34Google Scholar
  348. Wurtman RJ, Blusztajn JK, Maire J-C (1985) ‘Autocannibalism’ of choline-containing membrane phospholipids in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease — a hypothesis. Neurochem Int 7:369–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Yamamura HI, Snyder SH (1973) High affinity transport of choline into synaptosomes of rat brain. J Neurochem 21:1355–1374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Zeisel SH (1981) Dietary choline: biochemistry, physiology, and pharmacology. Rev Nutr 1:95–121Google Scholar
  351. Zeisel SH (1985) Formation of unesterified choline by rat brain. Biochim Biophys Acta 835:331–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Zeisel SH, Wurtman RJ (1981) Developmental changes in rat blood choline concentration. Biochem J 198:565–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Zeisel SH, Blusztajn JK, Wurtman RJ (1979) Brain lecithin biosynthesis: evidence that bovine brain can make choline molecules. In: Barbeau A, Growdon JH, Wurtman RJ (eds) Choline and lecithin in brain disorders. Raven, New York, pp 47–55 (Nutrition and the brain, vol 5)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Tuček

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations