Model Cholinergic Systems: The Electromotor System of Torpedo

  • V. P. Whittaker
  • D. W. Schmid
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 86)


In the fifth week of embryonic development of the electric ray, Torpedo marmorata, normal-looking, vertically orientated myotubes in the branchial region of the embryo deviate from the expected course of development of such cells and turn into electrocytes (Fritsch 1890; Fox and Richardson 1978, 1979) (Fig. 1). The lower pole of the myotube dilates, its myofibrils disintegrate, its nuclei migrate into the horizontal plane and the cell takes on a pear-shaped appearance. A few days, later the narrow upper part of the cell also loses its myofibrils and is drawn down. The embryonic electrocytes now flattened in the horizontal plane and arrange themselves in closely packed stacks which have a honeycomb appearance when viewed from above.


Synaptic Vesicle Electric Organ Electric Organ Discharge ChAT Activity Cholinergic Synapse 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. P. Whittaker
  • D. W. Schmid

There are no affiliations available

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