Production and Measurement of Interleukin 2 and Interleukin 3

  • B. M. Stadler
  • K. Hirai
  • J.-F. Gauchat
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 85)


In 1979, at the Second International Lymphokine Workshop, it was decided to revise the nomenclature for antigen-nonspecific T cell proliferation and helper factors (Aarden et al. 1979). The term “interleukin” was created as a common denominator for lymphokines acting among different leukocytes. Since then, the field of lymphokine research has made great progress. This is in part due to the many new technical developments which have been applied to lymphokine research, such as improved tissue culture techniques (Chap. 12), the availability of monoclonal antibodies (Chap. 6), and better biochemical separation techniques followed by the possibility of microsequencing. The greatest impact on lymphokine research was the use of recombinant DNA technology which allowed a molecular understanding of many lymphokines.


Northern Blot Analysis Phorbol Myristate Acetate Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte CTLL Cell Cord Blood Mononuclear Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aarden LA, Brunner TK, Cerottini JC, Dayer JM, de Weck AL, Dinarello CA, Di Sabato G, Farrar JJ, Gery I, Gillis S, Handschumachher RE, Henney CS, Hoffmann MK, Koopman WJ, Karane SM, Lachman LB, Lefkowits I, Mishell RI, Mizel SB, Oppenheim JJ, Paetkau V, Plate J, Röllinghoff M, Rosenstreich D, Rosenthal AS, Rosenwasser LJ, Schimpl A, Shin HS, Simon PL, Smith KA, Wagner H, Watson JD, Wecker E, Wood DD (1979) Letter to the editor. Revised nomenclature for antigen non-specific T cell proliferation and helper factors. J Immunol 123:2928–2929Google Scholar
  2. Amasino RM (1986) Acceleration of nucleic acid hybridization rate by polyethylene glycol. Anal Biochem 152:304–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker PE, Gillis S, Smith KA (1979) Monoclonal cytolytic T-Cell lines. J Exp Med 149:273–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berent SL, Mahmoudi M, Torczynski RM, Bragg PW, Bollon AP (1985) Comparison of oligonucleotide and long DNA fragments as probes in DNA and RNA dot, southern, northern, colony and plaque hybridizations. Biotechniques 3:208–220Google Scholar
  5. Bonnard GD, Yasaka K, Jacobson D (1979) Ligand-activated T cell growth factor-induced proliferation: absorption of T cell growth factor by activated T cell. J Immunol 123:2794–2708Google Scholar
  6. Cantrell MA, Anderson D, Cerretti DP, Price V, McKereghan K, Tushinski RJ, Mochizuki DY, Larsen A, Grabstein K, Gillis S, Cosman D (1985) Cloning, sequence, and expression of a human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:6250–6254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheley S, Anderson R (1984) A reproducible microanalytical method for the detection of specific RNA sequences by dot-blot hybridization. Anal Biochem 137:15–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chirgwin JM, Przybyla AE, MacDonald RJ, Rutter WJ (1979) Isolation of biologically active ribonucleic acid from sources enriched in ribonuclease. Biochemistry 18:5294–5299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark SC, Arya SK, Wong-Staal F, Matsumoto-Kobayashi M, Kay RM, Kaufman RJ, Brown EL, Shoemaker C, Copeland T, Oroszlan S, Smith K, Sarngadhapan MG, Lindner SG, Gallo RC (1984) Human T-cell growth factor: partial amino acid sequence, cDNA cloning, and organization and expression in normal and leukemic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:2543–2547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark-Lewis I, Kent SBH, Schrader JW (1984) Purification to apparent homogeneity of a factor stimulating the growth of multiple lineages of hemopoietic cells. J Biol Chem 259:7488–7494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Collins ML, Hunsaker WR (1985) Improved hybridization assays employing tailed oligonucleotide probes: a direct comparison with 5’-end-labeled oligonucleotide probes and nick-translated plasmid probes. Anal Biochem 151:211–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cox RA (1968) The use of guanidium chloride in the isolation of nucleic acids. Methods Enzymol 12:120–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Degrave W, Tavernier J, Duerinck F, Plaetinck G, Devos R, Fiers W (1983) Cloning and structure of the human interleukin 2 chromosomal gene. EMBO J 2:2349–2353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Devos R, Plaetinck G, Cheroutre H, Simons G, Degrawe W, Tavernier J, Remaut E, Fiers W (1983) Molecular cloning of human interleukin 2 cDNA and its expression in E. coli. Nucl Acids Res 11:4307–4323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dexter TM, Garland J, Scott D, Scolnick E, Metcalf D (1980) Growth of factor-dependent hemopoietic precursor cell lines. J Exp Med 152:1036–1047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dretzen G, Bellard M, Sassone-Corsi P, Chambon P (1981) A reliable method for the recovery of DNA fragments from agarose and acrylamide gels. Anal Biochem 112:295–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dumonde DC, Papermaster BW (1984) Towards the standardization of lymphokines: First Report of the Lymphokine Standardization Subcommittee of the International Union of Immunological Societies, PAHO, Washington, DC, November 1983. Lymphokine Res 3:193–226Google Scholar
  18. Feinberg AP, Vogelstein B (1983) A technique for radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity. Anal Biochem 132:6–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Frei K, Bodmer S, Schwerdel C, Fontana A (1985) Astrocytes of the brain synthesize interleukin 3-like factors. J Immunol 135:1044–1047Google Scholar
  20. Fujita T, Takaoka C, Matsui H, Taniguchi T (1983) Structure of the human interleukin-2 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:7437–7441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fujita T, Shibuya H, Ohashi T, Yamanishi K, Taniguchi T (1986) Regulation of human interleukin-2 gene: functional DNA sequences in the 5’ flanking region for the gene expression in activated T lymphocytes. Cell 46:401–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fung MC, Hapel AJ, Ymer S, Cohen DR, Johnson RM, Campell HD, Young IG (1984) Molecular cloning of cDNA for murine interleukin 3. Nature 307:233–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gauchat JF, Walker C, De Weck AL, Stadler BM (1986) Relation of supernatant IL-2 to steady state levels of IL-2 mRNA. Lymphokine Res 5:s43-s47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gene Screen Instruction Manual (1983), Catalog No. NEF-972, New England Nuclear, BostonGoogle Scholar
  25. Gillis S, Mizel SB (1981) T cell lymphoma model for the analysis of interleukin 1 mediated T-cell activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:1133–1137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gillis S, Smith KA (1977a) Long term culture of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells. Nature 268:154–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gillis S, Smith KA (1977b) In vitro generation of tumor-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes. Secondary allogeneic mixed tumor-lymphocyte of normal murine spleen cells. J Exp Med 146:468–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gillis S, Baker PE, Ruscetti FW, Smith KA (1978a) Long-term culture of human antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell lines. J Exp Med 148:1093–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gillis S, Ferm MM, Ou W, Smith KA (1978b) T cell growth factor: parameters of production and a quantitative microassay for activity. J Immunol 120:2027–2032Google Scholar
  30. Gillis S, Smith KA, Watson JD (1980) Biochemical and biological characterization of lymphocyte regulatory molecules. II. Purification of a class of rat and human lymphokines. J Immunol 124:1954–1962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Glisin V, Crkvenjakov R, Byus C (1974) Ribonucleic acid isolated by cesium chloride centrifugation. Biochemistry 13:2633–2637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gough NM, Gough J, Metcalf D, Kelso A, Grail D, Nicola NA, Burgess AW, Dunn AR (1984) Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding a murine haematopoietic growth regulator, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Nature 309:763–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Greenberger JS, Eckner RJ, Sakakeeny M, Marks P, Reid D, Nabel G, Hapel A, Ihle JN, Humphries KC (1983) Interleukin 3-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell lines. Fed Proc 42:2762–2771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hapel AJ, Warren HS, Hume DA (1984) Different colony-stimulating factors are detected by the “interleukin-3”-dependent cell lines FDC-P1 and 32 Dcl-23. Blood 64:786–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hasthorpe S (1980) A hemopoietic cell line dependent upon a factor in pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cell conditioning medium. J Cell Physiol 105:379–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Holbrook NJ, Smith KA, Fornace AJ Jr, Comeau CM, Wiskocil RL, Crabtree GR (1984) T-cell growth factor: complete nucleotide sequence and organization of the gene in normal and malignant cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:1634–1638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ihle JN, Pepersack L, Rebar L (1981a) Regulation of T cell differentiation: in vitro induction of 20-a-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in splenic lymphocytes from athymic mice by a unique lymphokine. J Immunol 126:2184–2189Google Scholar
  38. Ihle JN, Lee JC, Rebar L (1981b) T cell recognition of Moloney leukemia virus proteins. III. T cell proliferative responses against gp70 are associated with the production of a lymphokine inducing 20-a-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in splenic lymphocytes. J Immunol 127:2565–2570Google Scholar
  39. Ihle JN, Keller J, Oroszlan S, Henderson LE, Copeland TD, Fitch F, Prystowsky MB, Goldwasser E, Schrader JW, Palaszynski E, Dy M, Lebel B (1983) Biologic properties of homogeneous interleukin 3. I. Demonstration of WEHI-3 growth factor activity, mast cell growth factor activity, P cell-stimulating factor activity, colony-stimulating factor activity, and histamine-producing cell-stimulating factor activity. J Immunol 131:282–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Iscove NN, Roitsch CA, Williams N, Guilbert LJ (1982) Molecules stimulating early red cell, granulocyte, macrophage, and megakaryocyte precursors in culture. Similarity in size, hydrophobicity and charge. J Cell Physiol [Suppl] 1:65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ishizaka T, Dvorak AM, Conrad DH, Niebyl JR, Marguette JP, Ishizaka K (1985) Morphologic and immunologic characterization of human basophils developed in cultures of cord blood mononuclear cells. J Immunol 134:532–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kafatos FC, Jones CW, Efstratiadis A (1979) Determination of nucleic acid sequence homologies and relative concentrations by a dot hybridization procedure. Nucl Acids Res 7:1540–1552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kawasaki ES, Ladner MB, Wang AM, Arsdell JV, Kim Warren M, Coyne MY, Schweickart VL, Lee MT, Wilson KJ, Boosman A, Stanley ER, Ralph R, Mark DF (1985) Molecular cloning of a complementary DNA encoding human macrophage-specific colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1). Science 230:291–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Khandjian EW (1986) UV crosslinking of RNA to Nylon membrane enhances hybridization signals. Mol Biol Rep 11:107–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kristensen F, Walker C, Bettens F, Joncourt F, de Weck AL (1982) Assessment of IL-1 and IL-2 effects on cycling and non cycling murine thymocytes. Cell Immunol 74:140–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kuribayashi K, Gillis S, Kern DE, Henney CS (1981) Murine NK cell cultures: effects of interleukin 2 and interferon on cell growth and cytotoxic reactivity. J Immunol 126:2321–2327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Laskey RA (1980) The use of intensifying screens or organic scintillators for visualizing ra- dioactive molecules resolved by gel electrophoresis. Methods Enzymol 65:363–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ledrach H, Diamond D, Wozney JM, Boedtker H (1977) RNA molecular weight determination by gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, a critical reexamination. Biochemistry 16:4743–4751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lee F, Yokota T, Otsuka T, Gemmell L, Larson N, Luh J, Arai KI, Rennick D (1985) Isolation of cDNA for a human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by functional expression in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:4360–4364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lee JC, Hapel AJ, Ihle JN (1982) Constitutive production of a unique lymphokine (IL-3) by the WEHI-3 cell line. J Immunol 128:2393–2398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Leonard WJ, Depper JM, Crabtree GR, Rudikoff S, Pumphrey J, Robb RJ, Krönke M, Svetlik PB, Peffer NJ, Waldmann TA, Greene WC (1984) Molecular cloning and expression of cDNAs for the human interleukin-2 receptor. Nature 311:626–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Luger TA, Wirth U, Köck A (1985) Epidermal cells synthesize a cytokine with interleukin 3-like properties. J Immunol 134:915–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. McCandliss R, Sloma A, Pestka S (1981) Isolation and cell-free translation of human interferon mRNA from fibroblasts and leukocytes. Methods Enzymology 79:51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Metcalf D (1985) The granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factors. Science 229:16–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mier JW, Gallo RC (1980) Purification and some characteristics of human T cell growth factor from PHA stimulated lymphocyte conditioned medium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:6134–6138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Morgan DA, Ruscetti FW, Gallo RC (1976) Selective in vitro growth of T lymphocytes from normal human bone marrow. Science 193:1007–1008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nabel G, Galli S.I, Dvorak AM, Dvorak HF, Cantor H (1981) Inducer T lymphocytes synthesize a factor that stimulated proliferation of cloned mast cells. Nature 291:332–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nagata S, Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Kaziro Y, Yamazaki T, Yamamoto O, Hirata Y, Kubota N, Oheda M, Nomura H, Ono M (1985) Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Nature 319:415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nikaido T, Shimizu A, Ishida N, Sabe H, Teshigawara K, Maeda M, Uchiyama T, Yodoi J, Honjo T (1984) Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding human interleukin-2 receptor. Nature 311:631–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ogawa M, Nakahata T, Leary AR, Stark OK, Ishizaka K, Ishizaka T (1983) Suspension culture of human mast cell/basophils from umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4494–4498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Razin E, Corden-Cardoj C, Good RA (1981) Growth of a pure population of mouse mast cells in vitro with conditioned medium derived from concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:2559–2561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rennick DM, Lee FD, Yokota T, Arai KI, Cantor H, Nabel GJ (1985) A cloned MCGF cDNA encodes a multilineage hematopoietic growth factor: multiple activities of interleukin 3. J Immunol 134:910–914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Robb RJ, Smith KA (1981) Heterogeneity of human T-cell growth factor(s) due to variable glycosylation. Mol Immunol 18:1087–1094PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rosenberg SA, Grimm EA, McGrogan M, Doyle M, Kawasaki E, Koths K, Mark DF (1984) Biological activity of recombinant human interleukin 2 produced in Escherichia coli. Science 223:1413–1414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ruscetti RW, Gallo RC (1981) Human T lymphocytes growth factor: regulation of growth and function of lymphocytes. Blood 57:379–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Sakakeeny MA, Greenberger JS (1982) Granulopoiesis longevity in continuous bone marrow cultures and factor-dependent cell line generation: significant variation among 28 inbred mouse strains and outbred stocks. J Natl Cancer Inst 68:305–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Schrader JW (1981) The in vitro production and cloning of the P cell, a bone marrow-derived null cell that expresses H-2 and Ia-antigens, has mast cell-like granules, and is regulated by a factor released by activated T cells. J Immunol 126:452–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Schrader JW, Lewis SJ, Clark-Lewis I, Culvenor JG (1981) The persisting (P) cell: histamine content, regulation by a T cell-derived factor, origin from a bone marrow precursor, and relationship to mast cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:323–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Smith KA, Ruscetti FW (1981) T cell growth factor and the culture of cloned functional T cells. Adv Immunol 31:137–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Souza LM, Boone TC, Gabrilove J, Lai PH, Zsobo KM, Murdock DC, Chazin VR, Bruszewski J, Lu H, Chen K, Barentdt J, Platzer E, Moore M, Mertelsmann R, Welte K (1986) Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: effects on normal and leukemic myeloid cells. Science 232:61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stadler BM, Oppenheim JJ (1982) Human interleukin-2. Biological studies using purified IL-2 and monoclonal anti IL-2 antibodies. In: Mizel SB (ed) Lymphokines 6. Lymphokines in antibody and cytotoxic responses. Academic, New York, pp 117–135Google Scholar
  72. Stadler BM, Kristensen F, de Weck AL (1980) Thymocyte activation by cytokines: direct assessment of Go-G1 transition by flow cytometry. Cell Immunol 55:436–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stadler BM, Dougherty SF, Farrar JJ, Oppenheim JJ (1981) Relationship of cell cycle to recovery of IL-2 activity from human mononuclear cells, human and mouse T cell lines. J Immunol 127:19–36Google Scholar
  74. Stadler BM, Berenstein EH, Siraganian RP, Oppenheim JJ (1982) Monoclonal antibodies against human interleukin-2 (IL-2). I. Purification of IL-2 for the production of monoclonal antibodies. J Immunol 128:1620–1624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Stadler BM, Hirai K, Tadokoro K, de Weck AL (1985a) Distinction of the human basophil promoting activity from human interleukin 3. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 77:151–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stadler BM, Hirai K, Tadokoro K, de Weck AL (1985b) Distinction of the human basophil promoting activity from a human IL-3 like factor. In: Sorg C, Schimpel A (eds) Cellular and molecular biology of lymphokines. Academic, Orland, pp 479–483Google Scholar
  77. Stadler BM, Hirai K, Brantschen S, Nakajima K, de Weck AL (1987) Biochemical characterization of the human basophil-promoting activity. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 82:338–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stellweg EJ, Dahlberg AE (1980) Electrophoretic transfer of DNA, RNA and protein onto diazobenzyloxymethyl (DBM)-paper. Nucl Acids Res 8:290–317Google Scholar
  79. Tadokoro K, Stadler BM, de Weck AL (1983) Factor dependent in vitro growth of human bone marrow derived basophil-like cells. J Exp Med 158:857–871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Taniguchi T, Matsui H, Fugita T, Takaoka C, Kashima N, Yoshimoto RE, Hamuro J (1983) Structure and expression of a cloned cDNA for human interleukin-2. Nature 302:305–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tertian G, Yung YP, Guy-Grand D, Moore MAS (1981) Long-term in vitro culture of murine mast cells. I. Description of a growth factor-dependent culture technique. J Immunol 127:788–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Thomas PS (1980) Hybridization of denatured RNA and small DNA fragments transferred to nitrocellulose. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:5201–5205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Thomas PS (1983) Hybridization of denatured RNA transferred or dotted to nitrocellulose paper. Methods in Enzymology 100:255–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Timonen T, Ortaldo J, Stadler BM, Bonnard GD, Herberman RB (1982) Cultures of human natural killer cells: growth in the presence of interleukin 2. Cell Immunol 72:178185Google Scholar
  85. Wahl GM, Stern M, Stark GR (1979) Efficient transfer of large DNA fragments from agarose gels to diazobenzyloxymethyl-paper and rapid hybridization by using dextran sulfate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:3683–3687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Warner NL, Moore MAS, Metcalf D (1969) A transplantable myelomonocytic leukemia in BALB/c mice: cytology, karyotype and muramidase content. J Natl Cancer Inst 43:963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Warren HS, Hargreaves J, Hapel AJ (1985) Some interleukin-3 dependent mast-cell lines also respond to interleukin-2. Lymphokine Res 4:195–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Watson J (1979) Continuous proliferation of murine antigen-specific helper T lymphocytes in culture. J Exp Med 150:1510–1519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Watson JD, Crosier PS, March CJ, Conlon PJ, Mochizuki DY, Gillis S, Urdal DL (1986) Purification to homogeneity of a human hematopoietic growth factor that stimulates the growth of a murine interleukin 3-dependent cell line. J Immunol 137:854–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Weinstein Y (1977) 20-a-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: a T lymphocyte-associated enzyme. J Immunol 119:1223–1229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Weite K, Platzer E, Lu L, Gabrilove JL, Levi E, Mertelsmann R, Moore MAS (1985) Purification and biochemical characterization of human pluripotent hematopoietic colony-stimulating factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:1526–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wong GG, Witek JA, Temple PA, Wilkens KM, Leary AC, Luxenberg DP, Jones SS, Brown EL, Kay RM, Orr EC, Shoemaker C, Golde DW, Kaufman RJ, Hewick RM, Wang EA, Clark SC (1985) Human GM-CSF: molecular cloning of the complementary DNA and purification of the natural and recombinant proteins. Science 228:810–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yang YC, Ciarletta AB, Temple PA, Chung MP, Kovacis S, Witek-Gianotti JS, Leary AC, Kriz R, Donahme RE, Wong GG, Clark SC (1986) Human IL-3 (multi CSF): identification by expression cloning of a novel hematopoietic growth factor related to murine IL-3. Cell 47:3–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ymer S, Tucker WQJ, Sanderson CJ, Hapel AJ, Campbell HD, Young IG (1985) Constitutive synthesis of interleukin-3 by leukaemia cell line WEHI-3B is due to retroviral insertion near the gene. Nature 317:255–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yokota T, Lee F, Rennick D, Hall C, Arai N, Mosmann T, Nabel G, Cantor H, Arai KI (1984) Isolation and characterization of a mouse cDNA clone that expresses mast-cell growth-factor activity in monkey cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:1070–1074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yung YP, Eger R, Tertian G, Moore MAS (1981) Long-term in vitro culture of murine mast cells. II. Purification of a mast cell growth factor and its dissociation from G-CSF. J Immunol 127:794–799PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. M. Stadler
  • K. Hirai
  • J.-F. Gauchat

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations