Biological Activities of Structural Variants of Host-Selective Toxins from Cochliobolus Victoriae

  • V. Macko
  • T. J. Wolpert
  • W. Acklin
  • D. Arigoni
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 27)


There are a number of plant diseases in which specificity is determined by the ability of the pathogen to produce toxins that are selectively active only on susceptible crop cultivars. Twenty to thirty years ago, diseases that involved so called host — selective toxins were considered to be curiosities. However, the long-term and independent efforts of H. Wheeler and R.P. Scheffer and their associates have led to an acceptance of these diseases as relevant models for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of disease specificity. Genetically, these diseases are the inverse of the gene-for-gene relationship. There is a dominant gene in the pathogen controlling toxin synthesis and a corresponding dominant gene in the host plant that confers sensitivity to the toxin, presumably by coding for a receptor molecule. Thus, characterization of such diseases at the molecular level requires that both the toxin and the receptor, as well as their interaction, be characterized.


Glyoxylic Acid Crown Rust Native Toxin Black Spot Disease Leaf Slice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Daly JM (1981) Mechanisms of action. In: Durbin RD (ed) Toxins in plant disease, Academic Press, New York, p 331Google Scholar
  2. Dunkle LD (1984) Factors in pathogenesis. In: Kosuge T, Nester EW (eds) Plant-microbe interactions, Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, p 19Google Scholar
  3. Knoche HW, Duvick JP (1988) The role of fungal toxins in plant disease. In: Pegg GF, Ayres PG (ed) Fungal Infections of Plants, Cambridge University Press, p 158Google Scholar
  4. Macko V, Wolpert TJ, Acklin W, Jaun B, Seibl J, Meili J, Arigoni D (1985) Characterisation of victorin C, the major host-se1ective toxin from Cochliobolus victoriae: structure of degradation products. Experientia 41:1366–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Mayama S, Tani T, Ueno T, Midland SL, Sims JJ, Keen NT (1986) The purification of victorin and its phytoalexin elicitor activity in oat leaves. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 29:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Meehan F, Murphy HC (1946) A new Helminthosporiurn blight of oats. Science 104:413–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Meehan F, Murphy HC (1947) Differential phototoxicity of metabolic by-products of Helminthosporiurn victoriae. Science 106:270–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Schauenstein E, Esterbauer H, Zollner H (1977) Aldehydes in biological systems — their natural occurrence and biological activities. Pion Limited, London, p 1–205Google Scholar
  9. Scheffer RP (1976) Host-specific toxins in relation to pathogenesis and disease resistance. In: Heitefuss R, Williams PH (eds) Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, vol. 4, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p 247Google Scholar
  10. Scheffer RP, Livingston RS (1984) Host-selective toxins and their role in plant disease. Science 223:17–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Shain L, Wheeler H (1975) Production of ethylene by oats resistant and susceptible to victorin. Phytopathology 65:88–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Walton JD, Earle ED (1985) Stimulation of extracellular polysaccharide synthesis in oat protoplasts by the host-specific Phytotoxin victorin. Planta 165:407–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wheeler HE, Luke HH (1954) Studies of a toxic agent produced by Helminthosporiurn victoriae. Phytopathology 44:334Google Scholar
  14. Wolpert TJ, Macko V, Acklin W, Jaun B, Seibl J, Meili J, Arigoni D (1985) Structure of victorin C, the major host-se1ective toxin from Cochliobolus victoriae. Experientia 41:1524–1529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wolpert TJ, Macko V, Acklin W, Jaun B, Arigoni D (1986) Structure of the minor host-selective toxins from Cochliobolus victoriae. Experientia 42:1296–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wolpert TJ, Macko V, Acklin W, Arigoni D (1988) Molecular features affecting the biological activity of the host-selective toxins from Cochliobolus victoriae. Plant Physiol 87:37–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Yoder OC (1980) Toxins in pathogenesis. Ann Rev Phytopathology 18:103–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Macko
    • 1
  • T. J. Wolpert
    • 1
  • W. Acklin
    • 2
  • D. Arigoni
    • 2
  1. 1.Boyce Thompson InstituteCornel UniversityIthacaUSA
  2. 2.Laboratorium für Organische ChemieEidgenössische Technische HochschuleZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations