Alterations of Gene Expression during the Induction of Freezing Tolerance in a Brassica napus Cell Suspension Culture
The ability of crop plants to develop freezing tolerance by cold acclimation is a genetically inherited trait. For example, genes controlling frost tolerance have been identified as being associated with chromosome 5A in winter wheat (Sutka, 1981) and genetic evidence suggest that two dominant epistatic genes may control frost tolerance in Brassica oleracea (Bouwkamp and Honma, 1969). During the attainment of freezing tolerance, plant cells undergo changes resulting in observable altered behavior of their plasmalemma during freezing (Gordon-Kamm and Steponkus, 1984; Singh and Miller, 1985; Pearce and Willison, 1985; Uemura and Yoshida, 1986). It is also known that protein synthesis is required for cold acclimation (Trunova and Zvereva, 1977; Hatano et al., 1976). The manifestation of such synthesis has been observed as increases in protein, membrane lipids, total RNA and soluble sugars (Siminovitch et al., 1968; Gusta and Weiser, 1972). Ultrastructurally, this increased synthetic activity also has been observed as a proliferation of membrane vesicles underlying the plasmalemma (Pomeroy and Siminovitch, 1971; Niki and Sakai, 1981). During acclimation, these vesicles can be seen to be in various states of fusion with the plasmalemma. Cyclohexamide, which inhibits hardening, also prevents the proliferation of such vesicles (Niki and Sakai, 1981).
KeywordsSugar Surfactant Maize Hexagonal Electrophoresis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Gordon-Kamm WJ, Steponkus PL (1984) Lamellar to hexagonal II Phase transitions in plasma membranes of isolated protoplasts after freeze induced dehydration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 8:637Google Scholar
- Hatano S, Sadakane H, Tutumi M, Watanabe T (1976) Studies on frost hardiness in Chlorella ellipsoida II. Effects of inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis and surfactants on the process of hardening. Plant Cell Physiol 17:643Google Scholar
- Johnson-Flanagan AJ, Barran LR, Singh J (1986) L-Methionine transport during the induction of freezing hardiness by abscisic acid in Brassica napus cell suspension cultures. J Plant Physiol 124:309Google Scholar
- Johnson-Flanagan AM, Singh J (1987) Alteration of gene expression during the induction of freezing tolerance in Brassica napus suspension culture. Plant Physiol (in press)Google Scholar
- Laroche A, Hopkins WG (1987) Polysomes from winter rye seedlings grown at low temperature. II: In vitro translation activity of cytoplasmic polysomes and mRNA. Plant Physiol (in press)Google Scholar
- Mohapatra SS, Poole RJ, Dhindsa RS (1987) Changes in proteins and translatable messenger RNA populations during cold acclimation of two alfalfa genotypes differing in cold tolerance. Plant Physiol 84Google Scholar
- Niki T, Sakai A (1981) Ultrastructure changes related to frost hardiness in the cortical parenchyma cells from mulberry twigs. Plant Cell Physiol 22:171Google Scholar
- Orr W, Keller WA, Singh J (1986) Induction of freezing tolerance in an embryogenic cell suspension culture of Brassica napus by abscisic acid at room temperature. J Plant Physiol 126:23Google Scholar
- Robertson AJ, Gusta LV, Reaney MJ, Ishikawa M (1987) Protein synthesis in Bromegrass cultured cells during the induction of frost tolerance by ABA or low temperature. Plant Physiol 24:1351Google Scholar
- Singh J, Miller RW (1985) Biophysical and ultrastructural studies of membrane alterations in plant cells during extracellular freezing: Molecular mechanism of membrane injury. In: Kartha K (ed) Cryo-preservation of Plant Cells and Organs. CRC Press, Inc., Florida, 61Google Scholar
- Trunova TI, Zvereva GH (1977) Effects of protein synthesis inhibitors on frost hardiness and winter wheat. Soviet Plant Physiol 24:311Google Scholar
- Tseng M-J, Li PH (1984) Changes in nucleic acid and protein synthesis during induction of cold hardiness. In: Li PH (ed) Plant Cold Hardiness, 1Google Scholar