Glial-Derived Substances Associated with CNS Regeneration

  • M. Schwartz
  • A. Harel
  • A. Cohen
  • C. Stein-Izsak
  • M. Fainaru
  • M. Rubinstein
  • M. Belkin
  • A. Solomon
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 22)

Abstract

Axonal injury stimulates two complimentary systems, the axon and its surrounding non-neuronal cells which operate in synchrony. Our results suggest that the non-neuronal cells response to injury have an impact on the subsequent ability of the axon to grow and elongate. In this chapter we review some of our observations related to the components which interplay in this process. One example for biochemical manifestations of an early response to injury in CNS of a regeneration system (i.e. fish visual system) is the accumulation of a 28 kDa polypeptide which we identified as apoli- poprotein-A-I (apo-A-I). The accumulation of primarily one isoform of apo-A-I, may be due to a need created by the injury for a particular stable and functional isoform. These observations are similar to those reported in adult rat sciatic nerves where a 37 kDa polypeptide showed an elevation after injury and was identified as apo-E. We attribute to apo-A-I a role in removal of dead tissue to pave the way for regeneration. Subsequent regeneration depends on the accessibility to growth supportive substances and organized and proper extracellular matrix. We found that soluble substances originating from regenerating fish optic nerves and newborn rabbit optic nerves contain factors which activate neurons and may modulate the glial response to injury. These factors when applied to injured adult rabbit optic nerves cause in the later biochemical alterations in the retinas and acquisition of a growth supportive surface including accumulation of laminin by the surrounding nonneuronal cells. A non-regenerative system either does not provide these factors, or keeps them inaccessible at the critical time but has the machinery to respond to these factors. Our results suggest that the response to injury of non-neuronal cell is not different from the response to injury of any other damaged tissue and may therefore obey to the same set of rules governing proliferation and differentiation of other cells. The possible involvement of proto- oncogenes in their response to injury was therefore examined. The protooncogenes fos and myc were found to be constitutively expressed in these cells and an elevation was found after injury. These protoncogenes may have a role in the plasticity of this system, an issue which is currently being further investigated.

Keywords

Cholesterol Glycine Retina Sarcoma Polypeptide 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Schwartz
    • 1
  • A. Harel
    • 1
  • A. Cohen
    • 1
  • C. Stein-Izsak
    • 1
  • M. Fainaru
    • 2
  • M. Rubinstein
    • 3
  • M. Belkin
    • 4
  • A. Solomon
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeurobiologyThe Weizmann Institute of ScienceRehovotIsrael
  2. 2.Kaplan HospitalRehovotIsrael
  3. 3.Department of VirologyThe Weizmann Institute of ScienceTel-HashomerIsrael
  4. 4.Maurice and Gaoriela Goldschleger, Eye Research InstituteTel- Aviv Sackler School of Medicine, Sheba Medical CenterTel-HashomerIsrael

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