Paramecium pp 41-58 | Cite as

The Species Concept and Breeding Systems

  • Dennis Nyberg

Abstract

People group and organize entities or observations as a way of understanding the world. We also believe that the structures we generate doing this fundamental taxonomic activity approach the “true” organization of the natural world. Initially few characters, often of a single class, are available for organizing individuals into groups. As new characters, and especially those of a different nature or class, become available, the effectiveness of the original classification is tested and evaluated. An ideal taxonomy results in the same classification regardless of the nature of the characters used. In biology the species level was more effective than higher levels of classification in forming “natural” groups, i.e., those in which different classes of characters resulted in the same or similar groupings. In this century the greater effectiveness of the species level of classification could be rationalized through the gene pool shared by members of this evolutionary unit. Along with this new evolutionary definition of species came the discovery that morphologically similar Drosophila could sometimes be divided into more than one genetic species. These became known as sibling species.

Keywords

Zinc Nickel Mercury Agat Chromium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agatsuma T, Tsukii Y (1980) Genetic control of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes in Paramecium caudatum. Biochem Genet 18:77–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen SL, Byrne BC, Cronkite DL (1971) Intersyngenic variations in the esterases of bacterized Paramecium aurelia. Biochem Genet 5:135–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen SL, Farrow SW, Golembiewski PA (1973) Esterase variations between the 14 syngens of Paramecium aurelia under axenic growth. Genetics 73:561–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen SL, Lau ET, Nerad TA, Rushford CL (1982) Esterase variants in four species of the Paramecium aurelia complex. J Protozool 29:604–611Google Scholar
  5. Allen SL, Nerad TA, Rushford CL (1983a) Intraspecies variability in the esterases and acid phosphatases of four species of the Paramecium aurelia complex. J Protozool 30:131–143Google Scholar
  6. Allen SL, Adams J, Rushford CL (1983b) Interspecies relationships in the Paramecium aurelia complex: acid phosphatase variation. J Protozool 30:143–147Google Scholar
  7. Allen SL, Nerad TA, Rushford CL (1983c) Comparison of the esterases and acid phosphatases in Paramecium multimicronucleatum, syngens 1–5, P. jenningsi, P. caudatum, and the P. aurelia complex. J Protozool 30:148–154Google Scholar
  8. Allen SL, Rushford CL, Nerad TA, Lau ET (1983d) Intraspecies variability in the esterases and acid phosphatases of Paramecium jenningsi and Paramecium multimicronucleatum assignment of unidentified Paramecia; comparison with the P. aurelia complex. J Protozool 30:155–163Google Scholar
  9. Ammermann D (1966) Das Paarungssystem der Ciliaten Paramecium woodruffi and Paramecium trichium. Arch Protistenk 109:139–146Google Scholar
  10. Aufderheide KJ, Daggett P-M, Nerad TA (1983) Paramecium sonneborni n.sp., a new member of the Paramecium aurelia species complex. J Protozool 30:128–131Google Scholar
  11. Beale GH, Knowles JKC (1976) Interspecies transfer of mitochondria in Paramecium aurelia. Mol Gen Genet 143:197–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beale GH, Tait A (1981) Mitochondrial genetics of Paramecium aurelia. Int Rev Cytol 71:19–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bomford R (1966) The syngens of Paramecium bursaria new mating types and intersyngenic mating reactions. J Protozool 13:497–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Butzel HM, Jr (1974) Mating type determination and development in Paramecium aurelia. In: Van Wagtendonk WJ (ed) Paramecium, a current survey. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 91–130Google Scholar
  15. Cummings DJ (1980) Evolutionary divergence of mitochondrial DNA from Paramecium aurelia. Mol Gen Genet 180:77–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cummings DJ, Maki RA, Conlon PJ, Laping J (1980) Anatomy of mitochondrial DNA from Paramecium aurelia. Mol Gen Genet 178:499–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Darlington CD (1958) Evolution of genetic systems, 2nd edn. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, 265 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Dini F (1984) On the evolutionary significance of autogamy in the marine Euplotes. Am Nat 123:151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dippell RV (1954) A preliminary report on the chromosomal constitution of certain variety 4 races of Paramecium aurelia. Caryologia 6(Suppl):1109–1111Google Scholar
  20. Gates MA, Berger J (1976) Morphometric inseparability of Paramecium primaurelia and P. pentaurelia. Trans Am Microsc Soc 95:507–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Genérmont J, Machelon V, Demar C (1985) The “vannus” group of the genus Euplotes. Sibling species and related forms; evolutionary significance and taxonomic implications. Att Soc Tosc Sci Nat Mem (Ser B) 92:53–65Google Scholar
  22. Gilman LC (1941) Mating types in diverse races of Paramecium caudatum. Biol Bull 80:384–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Görtz H-D, Fujishima M (1983) Conjugation and meiosis of Paramecium caudatum infected with the micronucleus-specific bacterium Holospora elegans. Eur J Cell Biol 32:86–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Haga N, Saimi Y, Takahashi M, Kung C (1983) Intra- and interspecific complementation of membrane-inexcitable mutants of Paramecium. J Cell Biol 97:378–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Haggard B (1974) Interspecies crosses in Paramecium aurelia (syngen 4 by syngen 8). J Protozool 21:152–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hairston NG (1958) Observations on the ecology of Paramecium, with comments on the species problem. Evolution 12:440–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hairston NG (1967) Studies on the limitation of a natural population of Paramecium aurelia. Ecology 48:904–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hairston NG, Kellerman SL (1965) Competition between varieties 2 and 3 of Paramecium aurelia the influence of temperature in a food limited system. Ecology 46:134–139Google Scholar
  29. Hiwatashi K (1949) Studies on the conjugation of Paramecium caudatum. I. Mating types and groups in the races obtained in Japan. Sci Rep Tohoku Univ (4th Ser) 18:137–140Google Scholar
  30. Hiwatashi K (1968) Determination and inheritance of mating type in Paramecium caudatum. Genetics 58:373–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Khadem N, Gibson I (1985) Enzyme variation in Paramecium caudatum. J Protozool 32:622–626Google Scholar
  32. Komala Z, Przyboś E (1984) Distribution of the Paramecium aurelia species complex in the Carpathian Chain of Poland. Zool Scr 13:161–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kroll RJ, Barnett A (1968) The effect of different fission rates on the onset of maturity in Paramecium multimicronucleatum. J Protozool 15(Suppl):10Google Scholar
  34. Landis WG (1981) The ecology, role of the killer trait, and interactions of five species of the Paramecium aurelia complex inhabiting the littoral zone. Can J Zool 59:1734–1743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Landis WG (1982) The spatial and temporal distribution of Paramecium bursaria in the littoral zone. J Protozool 29:159–161Google Scholar
  36. Luporini P, Dini F (1977) The breeding system and genetic relationship between autogamous and non-autogamous sympatric populations of Euplotes crassus. Monitore Zool Ital 11:119–154Google Scholar
  37. Machelon V, Demar C (1984) Electrophoretic variations among the genus Euplotes (Ciliata, Hypotrichida): comparative data for the sibling species complex Euplotes vannus and survey of infrageneric variability. J Protozool 31:74–82Google Scholar
  38. Miwa I (1979a) Specificity of the immaturity substances of Paramecium. J Cell Sci 36:253–260Google Scholar
  39. Miwa I (1979b) Immaturity substances in Paramecium primaurelia and their specificity. J Cell Sci 38:193–199Google Scholar
  40. Miyake A (1968) Induction of conjugation by chemical agents in Paramecium. J Exp Zool 167:359–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nanney DL (1980) Experimental ciliatology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 304 ppGoogle Scholar
  42. Nyberg D (1974) Breeding systems and resistance to environmental stress in ciliates. Evolution 28:367–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nyberg D (1975) Genetic analysis of copper resistance in Paramecium aurelia syngen 4. Genetics 80:463–473Google Scholar
  44. Nyberg D (1978) Genetic analysis of trichocyst discharge of the wild stocks of Paramecium tetraurelia. J Protozool 25:107–112Google Scholar
  45. Nyberg D (1982) Sex, recombination, and reproductive fitness: an experimental study using Paramecium. Am Nat 120:198–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nyberg D, Bishop P (1983) High levels of phenotypic variability of metal and temperature tolerance in Paramecium. Evolution 37:341–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nyberg D, Bogar AE (1986) Genotypic and subgenotypic variation in heavy metal tolerance in Paramecium. Am Nat 127:615–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Orias E (1959) Mating interaction between varieties 6 and 8 of Tetrahymena pyriformis. J Protozool 6(Suppl):19Google Scholar
  49. Powelson EE, Gates MA, Berger J (1975) A biometrical analysis of 22 stocks of four syngens of Paramecium aurelia. Can J Zool 53:19–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pringle CR, Beale GH (1960) Antigenic polymorphism in a wild population of Paramecium aurelia. Genet Res 1:62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Przyboś E (1968) The occurrence of syngens of Paramecium aurelia in Rumania. Folia Biol 16:131–136Google Scholar
  52. Przyboś E (1980) Distribution of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex in Spain. Folia Biol 28:405–412Google Scholar
  53. Schlegel M (1985) Comparative study of allozyme variation in eight species of hypotrichous ciliates. Z Zool Syst Evolutionsforsch 23:171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Seilhamer JJ, Olsen GJ, Cummings DJ (1984a) Paramecium mitochondrial genes. I. Small subunit rRNA gene sequence and microevolution. J Biol Chem 259:5167–5172Google Scholar
  55. Seilhamer JJ, Gutell RR, Cummings DJ (1984b) Paramecium mitochondrial genes. II. Large subunit rRNA gene sequence and microevolution. J Biol Chem 259:5173–5181Google Scholar
  56. Siegel RW (1958) Hybrid vigor, heterosis, and evolution in Paramecium aurelia. Evolution 12:402–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Siegel RW (1963) New results on the genetics of mating types in Paramecium bursaria. Genet Res 4:132–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Simon EM, Meyer EB, Preparata RM (1985) New wild Tetrahymena from southeast Asia, China, and North America, including T. malaccensis, T. asiatica, T. nanneyi, T. caudata, and T. silvana n. spp. J Protozool 32:183–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Sogin ML, Elwood HJ (1986) Primary structure of the Paramecium tetraurelia small-subunit rRNA coding region: phylogenetic relationships within the ciliophora. J Mol Evol 23:53–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sonneborn TM (1937) Sex, sex inheritance and sex determination in Paramecium aurelia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 23:378–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sonneborn TM (1939) Paramecium aurelia mating types and groups; lethal interactions; determination and inheritance. Am Nat 73:390–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sonneborn TM (1957) Breeding systems, reproductive methods, and species problems in protozoa. In: Mayr E (ed) The species problem. AAAS, Washington, DC, pp 155–324Google Scholar
  63. Sonneborn TM (1975) The Paramecium aurelia complex of fourteen sibling species. Trans Am Microsc Soc 94:155–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stebbins GL, Jr (1950) Variation and evolution in plants. Columbia Univ Press, New York, 643 ppGoogle Scholar
  65. Tait A (1970) Enzyme variation between syngens in Paramecium aurelia. Biochem Genet 4:461–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Takagi Y (1970) Expression of the mating-type trait in the clonal life history after conjugation in Paramecium multimicronucleatum and Paramecium caudatum. Jpn J Genet 45:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tsukii Y, Hiwatashi K (1983) Genes controlling mating type specificity in Paramecium caudatum three loci revealed by intersyngenic crosses. Genetics 104:41–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Tsukii Y, Hiwatashi K (1985) Meiotic nondisjunction and aneuploids in intersyngenic hybrids of Paramecium caudatum. Genetics 111:779–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Vivier E (1974) Morphology, taxonomy and general biology of the genus Paramecium. In: Van Wagtendonk WJ (ed) Paramecium, a current survey. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–89Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dennis Nyberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations