Advertisement

What Is the Progress Towards Understanding the Selection Webs Influencing Melanic Polymorphisms in Insects?

  • P. M. Brakefield

Abstract

Industrial melanism refers to a correlation between high frequencies of melanic forms of an insect and regions of industrialization. This phenomenon in the peppered moth Biston betularia (L.) is the classic textbook example of the evolution of an adaptive trait in response to a changing environments involving the spread of adapted pheno-types by natural selection. The accounts include information about the central hypothesis of a change in the relative crypsis of non-melanic and melanic phenotypes due to blackening of the resting background of the moths by industrial air pollution. The entomologist, J.W. Tutt, writing at the end of the last century, presented particularly graphic descriptions of the essential features of this hypothesis (e.g. Tutt 1896). We can now ask: how much further have we actually progressed in our understanding since then and what has the theory of population genetics contributed to this understanding?

Keywords

Visual Selection Foliose Lichen Fruticose Lichen Melanic Form Pepper Moth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barkman JJ (1969) The influence of air pollution on bryophytes and lichens. Air pollution, PUDOC, Wageningen, pp 197–209Google Scholar
  2. Bishop JA (1972) An experimental study of the cline of industrial melanism in Biston betularia (L.) (Lepidoptera) between urban Liverpool and rural North Wales. J Anim Ecol 41:209–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bishop JA, Cook LM, Muggleton J, Seaward MRD (1975) Moths, lichens and air pollution along a transect from Manchester to North Wales. J Appl Ecol 12:83–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bishop JA, Cook LM, Muggleton J (1978a) The response of two species of moths to industrialisation in northwest England I. Polymorphism for melanism. Philos Trans R Soc London Ser B 281:489–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bishop JA, Cook LM, Muggleton J (1978b) The response of two species of moths to industrialisation in northwest England II. Relative fitness of morphs and population size. Philos Trans R Soc London Ser B 281:517–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brakefield PM (1984a) Ecological studies on the polymorphic ladybird Adalia bipunctata in The Netherlands. I. Population biology and geographical variation in melanism. J Anim Ecol 53: 761–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brakefield PM (1984b) Ecological studies on the polymorphic ladybird Adalia bipunctata in The Netherlands. II. Population dynamics, differential timing of reproduction and thermal melanism. J Anim Ecol 53:775–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brakefield PM (1984c) Selection along clines in the ladybird Adalia bipunctata in The Netherlands: a general mating advantage to melanics and its consequences. Heredity 53:37–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brakefield PM (1985) Polymorphic Müllerian mimicry and interactions with thermal melanism in ladybirds and a soldier beetle: a hypothesis. Biol J Linn Soc 26:243–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brakefield PM, Lees DR (1987) Melanism in Adalia ladybirds and declining air pollution in Birmingham. Heredity 59:273–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brakefield PM, Willmer PG (1985) The basis of thermal melanism in the ladybird Adalia bipunctata: differences in reflectance and thermal properties between the morphs. Heredity 54:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Britton G, Goodwin TW, Harriman GE, Lockley WJS (1977) Carotenoids of the ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata. Insect Biochem 7:337–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Charnley AK (1984) Physiological aspects of destructive pathogenesis in insects by fungi: a speculative review. In: Anderson JM, Rayner ADM, Walton DWH (eds) Invertebrate microbial interactions. Cambridge Univ Press, pp 229–270Google Scholar
  14. Clarke CA, Sheppard PM (1966) A local survey of the distribution of industrial melanic forms in the moth Biston betularia and estimates of selective values of-these in an industrial environment. Proc R Soc London Ser B 165:424–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clarke CA, Mani GS, Wynne G (1985) Evolution in reverse: clean air and the peppered moth. Biol J Linn Soc 26:189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook LM, Jacobs ThMGM (1983) Frequency and selection in the industrial melanic moth Odontoptera bidentata. Heredity 51:487–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cook LM, Mani GS (1980) A migration-selection model for the morph frequency variation in the peppered moth over England and Wales. Biol J Linn Soc 13:179–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cook LM, Askew RR, Bishop JA (1970) Increasing frequency of the typical form of the peppered moth in Manchester. Nature (London) 227:1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cook LM, Mani GS, Varley ME (1986) Postindustrial melanism in the peppered moth. Science 231:611–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Creed ER (1966) Geographic variation in the two-spot ladybird in England and Wales. Heredity 21:57–72 Creed ER (1971a) Melanism in the two-spot ladybird Adalia bipunctata in Great Britain. In: Creed ER (ed) Ecological genetics and evolution. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 134–151Google Scholar
  21. Creed ER (1971b) Industrial melanism in the two-spot ladybird and smoke abatement. Evolution 25:290–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Creed ER, Lees DR, Bulmer MG (1980) Pre-adult viability differences of melanic Biston betularia (L.) (Lepidoptera). Biol J Linn Soc 13:251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Endler JA (1984) Progressive background matching in moths and a quantitative measure of crypsis. Biol J Linn Soc 22:187–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ford EB (1975) Ecological genetics, 4th edn. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Götz P, Boman HG (1986) Insect immunity. In: Kerkut GA, Gilbert LI (eds) Comprehensive in sect physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology, vol 8. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 453–484Google Scholar
  26. Graham SM, Watt WB, Gall LF (1980) Metabolic resource allocation vs. mating attractiveness: adaptive pressures on the ‘alba’ polymorphism of Colias butterflies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:3615–3619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hawksworth DL, Rose F (1970) Qualitative scale for estimating sulphur dioxide air pollution in England and Wales using epiphytic lichens. Nature (London) 227:145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hiruma K, Riddiford LM, Hopkins TL, Morgan TD (1985) Roles of dopa decarboxylase and phenol- oxidase in the melanization of the tobacco hornworm and their control by 20-hydroxyecdy-sone. J Comp Physiol B 155:659–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Houston KJ, Hales DF (1980) Allelic frequencies and inheritance of colour pattern in Coelophora inaequalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Aust J Zool 28:669–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Howlett RJ, Majerus MEN (1987) The understanding of industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Bistort betularia) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Biol J Linn Soc 30:31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kettlewell HBD (1955) Selection experiments on industrial melanism in the Lepidoptera. Heredity 9:323–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kettlewell HBD (1956) Further selection experiments on industrial melanism in the Lepidoptera. Heredity 10:287–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kettlewell HBD (1958) The importance of the microenvironment to evolutionary trends in the Lepidoptera. Entomologist 91:214–224Google Scholar
  34. Kettlewell HBD (1973) The evolution of melanism. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  35. Komai T (1956) Genetics of ladybeetles. Adv Genet 8:155–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kramer KJ, Morgan TD, Hopkins TL, Roseland CR, Aso Y, Beeman RW, Lookhart GL (1984) Catecholamines and β-alanine in the red flour beetle, Tribolium casteneum. Roles in cuticle sclerotization and melanization. Insect Biochem 14:293–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kyriacou CP, Burnet B, Connolly KJ (1978) The behavioural basis of overdominance in competitive mating success at the ebony locus of D. melanogaster. Anim Behav 26:1195–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lees DR (1981) Industrial melanism: genetic adaptation of animals to air pollution. In: Bishop JA, Cook LM (eds) Genetic consequences of man-made change. Academic Press, London New York, pp 129–176Google Scholar
  39. Lees DR, Creed ER (1975) Industrial melanism in Bistort betularia: the role of selective predation. J Anim Ecol 44:67–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liebert TG, Brakefield PM (1987) Behavioural studies on the peppered moth Bistort betularia and a discussion of the role of pollution and epiphytes in industrial melanism. Biol J Linn Soc 31:129–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lusis J J (1961) On the biological meaning of colour polymorphism of lady beetle Adalia bipunctata L. Latv Ent 4:3–29Google Scholar
  42. Majerus MEN, O’Donald P, Kearns PWE, Ireland H (1986) Genetics and evolution of female choice. Nature (London) 321:164–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mani GS (1980) A theoretical study of morph ratio clines with special reference to melanism in moths. Proc R Soc London Ser B 210:299–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mani GS (1982) A theoretical analysis of the morph frequency variation in the peppered moth over England and Wales. Biol J Linn Soc 17:259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mikkola K (1979) Resting site selection of Oligia and Bistort moths (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae and Geometridae). Ann Entom Fenn 45:81–87Google Scholar
  46. Mikkola K (1984) On the selective forces acting in the industrial melanism of Bistort and Oligia moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae and Noctuidae). Biol J Linn Soc 21:409–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Muggleton J (1978) Selection against the melanic morphs of Adalia bipunctata (two-spot ladybird): a review and some new data. Heredity 40:269–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Muggleton J, Lonsdale D, Benham BR (1975) Melanism in Adalia bipunctata L (Col Coccinellidae) and its relationship to atmospheric pollution. J Appl Ecol 12:451–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Needham AE (1978) Insect biochromes. In: Rockstein M (ed) Biochemistry of insects. Academic Press, London New York, pp 253–305Google Scholar
  50. Safranek L, Riddiford LM (1975) The biology of the black larval mutant of the tobacco hom-worm, Manduca sexta. J Insect Physiol 21:1931–1938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sargent TD (1983) Melanism in Phigalia titea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): A 14-year record from central Massachusetts. J NY Entomol Soc 91:75–82Google Scholar
  52. Seaward MRD, Hitch CJB (eds) Atlas of the lichens of the British Isles, vol 1. Inst Terrest Ecol, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  53. Shellard HC (1976) Wind. In: Chandler TJ, Gregory S (eds) The climate of the British Isles. Longman, London New York, pp 39–73Google Scholar
  54. Steward RC (1985) Evolution of resting behaviour in polymorphic industrial melanic’ moth species. Biol J Linn Soc 24:285–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Thompson V (1984) Polymorphism under apostatic and aposematic selection. Heredity 53: 677–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tutt JW (1896) British moths. RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  57. Wit T de (1983) Lichens as indicators for air quality. Environ Monit Assess 3:273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. M. Brakefield
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Evolutionary BiologyRU LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations