From February 1984 to February 1987, 12 patients (7 men and 5 women) with a mean age of 61 years (range 28–84 years) benefited from esophageal resection for peptic structure. Eleven were operated electively because of an extensive undilatable stricture. One was operated on urgently for perforation during a dilatation session. All had been treated medically for several years with repeated sessions of dilatation in addition. 5 had already been operated for hiatus hernia (1 Nissen and 4 Toupet procedures), 1 was followed up for a ZE syndrome, and 1 has had a gastrectomy. Apart from the patient operated as an emergency, the indication for operation was the failure of dilatation sessions and the impermeable nature of the stricture.