Caffeine: Production by Plant (Coffea spp.) Cell Cultures

  • T. W. Baumann
  • P. M. Frischknecht
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 4)

Abstract

During evolution Homo sapiens has selected from the plant kingdom’s vast diversity a few species containing caffeine and related purine alkaloids [PA] and has manufactured them into pleasant “stimulants”. This process occurred in different civilizations from East to West and resulted in six “self-prescribed” drugs which are coffee (Coffea arabica L. and C. canephora Pierre ex Froehner), tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze), cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.), maté (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.), guarana (Paullinia cupana H.B.K.) and cola (Cola nitida Schott et Endl.). Since they are taken daily or at least very frequently, caffeine, the active principle, is a regular component of the human diet. For the major dietary caffeine sources Barone and Roberts (1984) suggest caffeine content values as follows; 85, 60 and 3 mg of caffeine per 5-oz cup for ground roasted, instant, and decaffeinated coffee respectively; 40. and 30 mg per 5-oz cup for leaf or bag tea and instant tea respectively; 18 mg per 6-oz glass for colas; 4 mg per 5-oz cup for cocoa or hot chocolate; and 5 mg per 8-oz glass for chocolate milk. From product usage and consumption analyses, the same authors estimate that the mean daily intake is approximately 3 mg/kg for all adults in the general population.

Keywords

Adenosine Immobilization Biodegradation Glycoside Aspergillus 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. W. Baumann
    • 1
  • P. M. Frischknecht
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Plant BiologyUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.ThalwilSwitzerland

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