Advertisement

A Non-contact Electro-optic Prober for High Speed Integrated Circuits

  • J. A. Valdmanis
  • S. S. Pei
Part of the Springer Series in Electronics and Photonics book series (SSEP, volume 24)

Abstract

Electro-optic sampling has been used extensively for the characterization of picosecond electronic devices such as photodetectors, transistors, and diodes [1,2]. For the large part, these studies have been with discrete devices coupled to specialized electro-optic modulators in a hybrid electrode geometry. However, there is great interest in being able to probe internal points of integrated circuits in order to characterize device and circuit operation in situ. Recently, a specialized embodiment of electro-optic sampling [3] was developed to perform sampling directly in the substrate of, specifically, GaAs integrated circuits. With this technique, almost any internal point of the circuit could be accessed. However, GaAs is the only commonly used semiconducting material that is also electro-optic. The substrate probing technique, or internal electro-optic sampling, also requires the surfaces of the integrated circuit to be of optical quality and the sampling laser beam to have a photon energy below the band gap energy of the substrate material.

Keywords

Input Buffer Sampling Beam Lithium Tantalate Clock Output Inverter Stage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    J.A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou and C.W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 41–3, pp. 211–212, Aug. 1982.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    J.A. Valdmanis, G.A. Mourou and C.W. Gabel, “Subpicosecond electrical sampling,” IEEE J. Quan. Elec., vol. QE-19-4, pp. 664–667, Apr. 1983.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    K.J. Weingarten, M.J.W. Rodwell, H.K. Heinrich, B.H. Kolner and D.M. Bloom, “Direct electro-optic sampling of GaAs integrated circuits,” Elect. Lett., vol. 21–17, pp. 765–766, Aug. 1985.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    J.A. Valdmanis, “Progress in picosecond electro-optic measurement techniques,” Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Francisco, CA, June 1986.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. Nees and G. Mourou, “Noncontact electro-optic sampling with a GaAs injection laser,” Elect. Lett., vol. 22–17, pp. 918–919, Aug. 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    J.A. Valdmanis, R.L. Fork and J.P. Gordon, “Design considerations for a femtosecond pulse laser balancing self-phase modulation, group velocity dispersion, saturable absorption, and saturable gain,” IEEE J. Quan. Elec., vol. QE-22-1, pp. 112–118, Jan. 1986.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Valdmanis
    • 1
  • S. S. Pei
    • 1
  1. 1.AT&T Bell LaboratoriesMurray HillUSA

Personalised recommendations