Recent Advances in Contact Imaging of Biological Materials
X-ray contact imaging (microradiography) was pioneered by Goby (1913a; 1913b; 1913c; 1925) in the study of the structures of plant tissue, insects and foraminifera. He also developed a method of obtaining three dimensional views from stereo-pairs of thick specimens (Goby, 1925). Later, Dauvillier (1927; 1930) and Lamarque (1936) continued such work with other biological specimens. Using high resolution emulsions (Lippmann type, with silver grain size less than 1μm), Dauvillier (1927; 1930) obtained contact micrographs with magnifications as high as 600X on some histological sections. He also observed that the contrast improved as the x-ray wavelength increased. Engström (1946) and his associates used silver halide photographic emulsions as the recording material to study a variety biological samples. However, the resolution was limited by the size of the silver grains, and the study of subcellular structure was therefore not possible.
KeywordsDust Hydrocarbon Brittle PMMA Flange
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