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Photoallergien

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Zusammenfassung

Licht-induzierte Allergien sind in den letzten Jahrzehnten als Sonderform einer allergisch-ekze- matösen Spättyp-Reaktion der Haut erkannt worden. Zu den klinisch und epidemiologisch wichtigen Photo-Allergenen gehören in unserer Bevölkerung zahlreiche Medikamente [besonders Psychopharmaka, Antihistaminika, Sulfonamide, Östrogene als orale Kontraceptiva, Doxicyclin und Dimethylchlortetracyclin, bestimmte Lichtschutzstoffe, Cyclamat (Süßstoff), Stilbene (optische Aufheller), bestimmte Pflanzenextrakte und Laxantien]. Die photochemische Aktivierung dieser Photo-Haptene mit Bindung an potentielle Trägerproteine (epidermale Strukturproteine oder Serumproteine) setzt bestimmte photochemische Sekundärreaktionen (z.B. oxidative Radikalbildung) voraus. Die Liste der aktuellen Photo-Allergene muß ständig revidiert und ergänzt werden. Einige Photo-Allergene (besonders halogenierte Salicylanilide) sind inzwischen kommerziell eliminiert. Während akute Photo-Allergene seltener geworden sind, haben chronisch persistierende lichenoide Lichtreaktionen bis zur Ausbildung von Pseudo-Lymphomen (einschließlich des sog. actinischen Retikuloids) in den letzten Jahren zugenommen.

Summary

Photo-induced allergic skin reactions have been recognized, in recent decades, as a particular group of eczematous disorders caused by cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity to a multitude of topically and/or systemically applied agents which may act as haptens by forming photochemi- cally induced hapten-carrier-complexes within the epidermis. The current list of potential photo- sensitizers comprises different drugs (in particular, psychotropic and antihistaminic drugs, sul- fonamides and distinct antibiotics), several sun screen agents, cyclamate, stilbene, some ingredients of cosmetics, and phytogenic and other substances. Meanwhile the mechanisms of photo-induced short-lived chemical reaction enabling the “hapten” to bind to an epidermal or serum-derived carrier protein have to some degree been elucidated. There is a continuous requirement for revising and supplementing the list of potential photo-sensitizers important for diagnosis of, and prevention from, photo-allergic skin diseases. Some photo-allergens have meanwhile been withdrawn from market, however, new ones are emerging. In contrast to a decline of acute photo-allergic disorders there is an increase of persisting lichenoid light eruptions including severe types of pseudo-lymphomas (e.g., actinic reticuloid) in recent years.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hautklinik KlinikumMannheimGermany

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