Potato pp 223-239 | Cite as

Markers for Identifying Somatic Hybrids in Potato

  • W. D. Benton
  • E. Shahin
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 3)

Abstract

Parasexual transfer of genetic information through hybridization of somatic plant cells provides a powerful tool for increasing genetic variability in cultivated potato. It is no surprise that the origin of the existing variability in the cultivated potato has been often attributed solely to gene exchange between diploid and tetraploid cultivars of Solarium tuberosum (Hawkes 1962). The real challenge has been and probably continues to be, to introduce more genes from the wild species into both diploid and tetraploid populations of Solarium tuberosum. Since sterility barriers exist between some wild species and S. tuberosum, somatic hybridization may be the only means available for effecting gene transfer. However, the successful application of this technology has thus far been limited to a few examples (Butenko and Kuchko 1979; Barsby et al. 1984; Austin et al. 1985) because efficient methods to identify and select hybrid cells are lacking. Markers for identification or selection of somatic hybrids are required because yields of heterokaryons seldom exceed 1% of the protoplasts in a fusion mixture (Butenko and Kuchko 1979).

Keywords

Chlorophyll Methotrexate Tryptophan Gall Valerate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams TL, Quiros CF (1985) Somatic hybridization between Lycopersicon peruvianum and L. pennellii: Regenerating ability and antibiotic resistance as selection systems. Plant Sci 40:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander RG, Cocking EC, Jackson PJ (1985) The characterization and isolation of plant heterokaryons by flow cytometry. Protoplasma 128:52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashburner M, Bonner JJ (1979) The induction of gene activity in Drosophila by heat shock. Cell 17:241–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Austin S, Baer MA, Helgeson JP (1985) Transfer of resistance of potato leaf roll virus from Solatium brevidens into Solarium tuberosum by somatic fusion, plant Sci 39:75 -82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aviv D, Bleichman S, Arzee-Gonen P, Galun E (1984) Intersectional cytoplasmic hybrids in Nicotiana. Theor Appl Genet 67:499–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barsby TL, Shepard JF, Kemble RJ, Wong R (1984) Somatic hybridization in the genus Solarium: S. tuberosum and S. brevidens. Plant Cell Rep 198:105–107Google Scholar
  7. Belliard G, Vedel F, Pelletier G (1979) Mitochondrial recombination in cytoplasmic hybrids of Nicotiana tabacum by protoplast fusion. Nature. (London) 281:401–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Binding H, Nehls R (1978) Somatic hybridization of Vicia faba+Petunia hybrida. Mol Gen Genet 164:137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Block M de, Schell J, Van Montagu M (1985) Chloroplast transformation by Agrobacterium tumafaciens. EMBO J 4:1367–1372Google Scholar
  10. Bonnett HT, Glimelius K (1983) Somatic hybridization in Nicotiana: behavior of organelles after fusion of protoplasts from male-fertile and male-sterile cultivars. Theor Appl Genet 65:213–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brisson N, Paszkowski J, Penswick JR, Gronenborn B, Potrykus I, Hohn T (1984) Expression of a bacterial gene in plants by using a viral vector. Nature. (London) 310:511–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Butenko PG, Kuchko AA (1979) Production of interspecific somatic hybrids of potato by merging isolated protoplasts. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 247:1020–1023Google Scholar
  13. Carlson PS, Smith HH, Dearing RD (1972) Parasexual interspecific plant hybridization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69:2292–2294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chupeau Y, Missonier C, Hommel M, Gouiand J (1978) Somatic hybrids of plants by fusion of protoplasts. Observations on the model system Nicotiana glauca-Nicotiana langsdorfii. Mol Gen Genet 165:239–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cocking EC, Power JB, Evans PK, Sawat F, Frearson EM, Hayward C, Berry SF, George D (1974) Naturally occurring differential drug sensitivities of cultured plant protoplasts. Plant Sci Lett 3:341–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dottin RP, Manrow RE, Fishel BR, Aukerman SL, Culleton JL (1979) Localization of enzymes in denaturing polyacrylamide gels. Meth Enzymol 68:513–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Douglas GC, Wetter LR, Keller WA, Setterfield G (1981) Somatic hybridization between Nicotiana rustica and N tabacum. IV. analysis of nuclear and chloroplast genome expression in somatic hybrids. Can J Bot 59:1509–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elzen P van den, Peter JM, Townsend J, Lee KY, Bedbrook JR (1985) A chimaeric hygromycin resistance gene as a selectable marker in plant cells. Plant Mol Biol 5:299–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fluhr R, Aviv D, Edelman M, Galun E (1983) Cybrids containing mixed and sorted-out chloroplasts following interspecific somatic fusions in Nicotiana. Theor Appl Genet 65:289–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fluhr R, Aviv D, Galun E, Edelman M (1984) Generation of heteroplastic Nicotiana cybrids by protoplast fusion: analysis for plastid recombinant types. Theor Appl Genet 67:491–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fraley RT, Rogers SG, Horsch RB, Sanders PR, Flick JS, Adams SP, Bittner ML, Brand LA, Fink CL, Fry JS, Galluppi GR, Goldberg SB, Hoffmann NL, Woo SC (1983) Expression of bacterial genes in plant cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803–4807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Galbraith DW, Mauch TJ (1980) Identification of fusion of plant protoplasts II: conditions for the reproducible fluorescence labelling of protoplasts derived from mesophyll tissue. Z Pflanzenphysiol 98:129–140Google Scholar
  23. Gamborg OL, Shyluk JP, Shahin EA (1981) Isolation, fusion, and culture of plant protoplasts. In: Thorpe TA (ed) Plant tissue culture -methods and applications in agriculture. Academic Press, London New York, pp 115–153Google Scholar
  24. Gekeler W (1984) Isoenzyme screening with modern methods of isoelectric focusing for an early identification of somatic hybrids of Solarium tuberosum+Lycopersicon esculentum. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z Physiol Chem 365Google Scholar
  25. Gengebach BG, Connelly JA, Pring DR, Conde MF (1981) Mitochondrial DNA variation in maize plants regenerated during tissue culture selection. Theor Appl Genet 59:161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gleba YY, Hoffmann F (1978) Hybrid cell lines Arabidopsis thaliana+Brassica campestris: no evidence for specific chromosome elimination. Mol Gen Genet 165:257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gleba YY, Hoffmann F (1980) “Arabidobrassica”: a novel plant obtained by protoplast fusion. Planta 149:112–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Glimelius K, Bonnett HT (1981) Somatic hybridization in Nicotiana: restoration of photoautotrophy to an albino mutant with defective plastids. Planta 153:497–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Glimelius K, Chen K, Bonnett HT (1981) Somatic hybridization in Nicotiana: segregation of organellar traits among hybrid and cybrid plants. Planta 153:504–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hawkes JG (1962) Introgression in certain wild potato species. Euphytica 11:26–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Herrera-Estrella L, Block M de, Messens E, Hernalsteens J-P, Van Montagu M, Schell J (1983) Chimeric genes as dominant selectable markers in plant cells. EMBO J 2:987–995Google Scholar
  32. Horn ME, Kameya T, Brotherton JE, Widholm JM (1983) The use of amino acid analog resistance and plant regeneration ability to select somatic hybrids between Nicotiana tabacum and N. glutinosa. Mol Gen Genet 192:235–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Izhar S, Tabib Y, Swartzberg D (1984) Reciprocal transfer of male sterile and normal plasmons in Petunia. Theor Appl Genet 68:455–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kanachanapoom K, Brightman AO, Grimes HD, Boss WF (1985) A novel method for monitoring protoplast fusion. Protoplasma 124:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kao KN (1977) Chromosome behavior in somatic hybrids of soybean -Nicotiana glauca. Mol Gen Genet 150:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Karp A, Risiott R, Jones MGK, Bright SWJ (1984) Chromosome doubling in monohaploid and dihaploid potatoes by regeneration from cultured leaf explants. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 3:363–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kemble RJ, Shepard JF (1984) Cytoplasmic DNA variation in a potato protoclonal population. Theor Appl Genet 69:211–216Google Scholar
  38. Komarnitskii IK, Kuchko AA, Shlumukov LR, Butenko RG (1981) Analysis of chloroplast DNA of an interspecies somatic hybrid of the potato. Dokl Biochem 256:21–22Google Scholar
  39. Kung SD (1982) Analysis of RuBP carboxylase subunits by isoelectric focusing. In: Edelman M, Hallick RB, Chua N-H (eds) Methods in chloroplast molecular biology. Elsevier, North Holland, Biomedical Press, Amsterdam New York, pp 809–818Google Scholar
  40. Lopato SV, Gleba YY (1985) Heat shock proteins from cell cultures of higher plants and their somatic hybrids. Plant Cell Rep 4:19–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Macko V, Stegemann H (1969) Mapping of potato proteins by combined electrofocusing and electrophoresis: identification of varities. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z Physiol Chem 350:917–919Google Scholar
  42. Maliga P (1984) Isolation and characterization of mutants in plant cell culture. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 35:519–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Maliga P, Lazar G, Joo F, Nagy AH, Menczel L (1977) Restoration of morphogenetic potential in Nicotiana by somatic hybridization. Mol Gen Genet 147:291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Melchers G, Labib G (1974) Somatic hybridization of plants by fusion of protoplasts. I. Selection of light resistant hybrids of “haploid” light sensitive varieties of tobacco. Mol Gen Genet 135:227–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Melchers G, Sacristan MD, Holder AA (1978) Somatic hybrid plants of potato and tomato regenerated from fused protoplasts. Carlsberg Res Commun 43:203–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) Revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nagy F, Lazar L, Menczel L, Maliga P (1983) A heteroplasmic state induced by protoplast fusion is a necessary condition for detecting rearrangements in Nicotiana mitochondrial DNA. Theor Appl Genet 66:203–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ninnemann H, Juttner F (1981) Volatile substances from tissue cultures of potato, tomato and their somatic fusion products -comparison of gas chromatographic patterns for identification of hybrids. Z Pflanzenphysiol 103:95–107Google Scholar
  49. O’Connell MA, Hanson MR (1985) Somatic hybridization between Lycopersicon esculentum and Lycopersicon pennelii. Theor Appl Genet 70:1–12Google Scholar
  50. Oliver JL, Martinez-Zapater JM (1985) A genetic classification of potato cultivars based on allozyme patterns. Theor Appl Genet 69:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Patnaik G, Cocking EC, Hamill J, Pental D (1982) A simple procedure for the manual isolation and identification of plant heterokaryons. Plant Sci Lett 24:105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pental D, Hamill JE, Cocking EC (1984) Somatic hybridisation using a double mutant of Nicotiana tabacum. Heredity 53:79–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Poulsen C, Porath D, Sacristan MD, Melchers G (1980) Peptide mapping of the ribulose biphosphate carboxylase small subunit from the somatic hybrid of tomato and potato. Carlsberg Res Commun 45:249–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Redenbaugh K, Ruzin S, Bartholomew J, Bassham JA (1982) Characterization and separation of plant protoplasts via flow cytometry and cell sorting. Z Pflanzenphysiol 107:65–80Google Scholar
  55. Roddick JG, Melchers G (1985) Steroidal glycoalkaloid content of potato, tomato and their somatic hybrids. Theor Appl Genet 70:655–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Scandalios JG, Sorenson JC (1977) Isozymes in plant tissue culture. In: Reinert J, Bajaj YPS (eds) Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell, tissues and organ culture. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 719–730Google Scholar
  57. Schieder O (1978) Somatic hybrids of Datura innoxia+Datura discolor and of Datura in-noxia+Datura stramonium var tatula. I. Selection and characteristics. Mol Gen Genet 162: 113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schieder O (1980) Somatic hybrids between a herbaceous and two tree Datura species. Z Pflanzenphysiol 98:119–127Google Scholar
  59. Schiller B, Herrmann RG, Melchers G (1982) Restriction endonuclease analysis of plastid DNA from tomato, potato and some of their somatic hybrids. Mol Gen Genet 186:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Seibles TS (1979) Studies on potato proteins. Am Potato J 56:415–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shahin EA (1984) Isolation, culture and regeneration of potato leaf protoplast from plants preconditioned in vitro. In: Vasil I (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants, vol I. Academic Press, London New York, pp 381–390Google Scholar
  62. Shahin EA, Simpson RB (1986) A gene transfer system for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). HortSci (in press)Google Scholar
  63. Shepard JF, Bidney D, Shahin E (1980) Potato protoplasts in crop inprovement. Science 208:17 -24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shepard JF, Bidney D, Barsby T, Kemble R (1983) Genetic transfer in plants through interspecific protoplast fusion. Science 219:683–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smillie RM, Melchers G, Wettstein D von (1979) Chilling resistance of somatic hybrids of tomato and potato. Carlsberg Res Commun 44:127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Smith HH, Kao KN, Combatti NN (1976) Interspecific hybridization by protoplast fusion in Nicotiana. Confirmation and extension. J Hered 67:123–128Google Scholar
  67. Stegemann H, Loeschcke C (1976) Index of European potato varieties. Mitt Biol Bundesanst Land-Forstwirtsch Berlin-Dahlem 168:1–214Google Scholar
  68. Waldron C, Murphy EB, Roberts JL, Gustafson GD, Armour SL, Malcolm SK (1985) Resistance to hygromycin B: a new marker for plant transformation studies. Plant Mol Biol 5:103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wenzel G (1985) Strategies in unconventional breeding for disease resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 23:149–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wettstein D von, Poulsen C, Holder AA (1978) Ribolose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase as a nuclear and chloroplast marker. Theor Appl Genet 53:193–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zambryski P, Herrera-Estrella L, Block M de, Van Montagu M, Schell J (1984) The use of the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium to study the transfer and expression of foreign DNA in plant cells: new vectors and methods. In: Setlow JK, Hollaender A (eds) Genetic engineering, principles and methods, vol IV. Plenum, New York, pp 253–278Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. D. Benton
  • E. Shahin
    • 1
  1. 1.ARCO Plant Cell Research InstituteDublinUSA

Personalised recommendations