Geological Characteristics of the Tin Deposits of China and the Basic Methods of Prospecting and Exploration
The tin deposits of China were formed chiefly in the late Mesozoic and occur in marginal belts of the crustal plate or in piedmont troughs of South China where S-type granites are well developed. Primary deposits of cassiterite-sulphide type with Devonian and Triassic carbonate strata as their country rocks are the main source of tin reserves. Placer tin deposits occur chiefly as diluvial and colluvial red clay in karst terrains.
Priority of exploration was given to the tin-placer deposits. Sampling by systematic Bangka drilling, chemical analysis or panning was carried out into the tin or cassit-erite contents for different styles of placer deposits. For primary tin deposits, co-ordinated core drilling in a pattern of drifts and crosscuts was the main means of deposit assessment. The accompanying polymetals were comprehensively explored and their utilization was emphasized.
Many new deposits were found chiefly through 1/200,000–1/50,000 regional geological surveying in which heavy mineral and geochemical prospecting methods have proved effective.
KeywordsPlacer Deposit Granite Batholith Karst Terrain Geochemical Prospect Crustal Plate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Chen Yuchuan, 1965. Primary zonal distribution of certain tin metallogenic belt in Guangxi, Geological Review, Vol. 23, No. 1 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Deng Yishu, 1951. Relationship of tin deposit of Gejiu with structures. Geological Review, Vol. 16, No. 2 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Juang Tingran, 1983. On the geological features of Gejiu type tin placers. Geological Review, Vol. 29, No. 2 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Liu Jinxing and Lixiji, 1957. On the formation and characteristics of mineralization of the Kochiu tin deposits, Yunnan. Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 37, No. 4 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Meng Xianming and Chen Kai et al., 1937. Geology of Gejiu tin deposits, Yunnan. Journal of the Geological Society of China, Vol. 16 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Taylor, R.G., 1979. Geology of Tin deposits Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Tian Kaiming, 1957. Connection of the Fu-He-Zhong tin placer deposits, Guangxi, with karst. Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 37, No. 4 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Wang Zhifeng, 1983. Some problems on the mineralization of tin deposits in Gejiu, Yunnan. Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol. 57, No. 2 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Xian Baiqi, 1984. A discussion on the ore-forming conditions and distributional regularity of the tin deposits of Guangxi. Acta Geologica Sinica. Vol. 58, No. 1 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Xu Keqin et al., 1980. Research on the temporal and spacial distribution, rock evolution, genetic types and ore-forming relations of the granitoids in SE China, Geological Issue of the Journal of Nanjing University (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Ye Shisun, 1983. Metallogenetic regularity and prognostication of Dachang Sn-polymetals deposits. Geology and Exploration, No. 5 (in Chinese).Google Scholar