Distribution of Tin Deposits in China and Their Metallogenic Conditions
The distribution of tin deposits in China is conditioned by the regional geological settings. The significant tin deposits are limited to only a few metallogenic regions or belts, which correspond to certain geological-tectonic units. In this paper, four tin metallogenic regions are outlined. They are: the south China fold system, the Daxin-ganling and the Jilin-Heilungjiang fold system, the Sanjiang fold system, and the Yangtze paraplatform. The metallogenic conditions of tin deposits in China are also briefly discussed.
China is one of the first countries to have used tin metal. Copper, tin and lead were used in the manufacture of the binary and ternary alloy-ancient bronze. The Shang dynasty established an outstanding bronze culture in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River as early as 1,000 B.C. or earlier.
The presently mined tin deposits all occur in south China. In the early days after the founding of the People’s Republic, geological work on tin deposits was confined to a few areas in south China. With the advances of regional geological surveys and mineral prospecting and extensive application of geophysical and geochemical exploration techniques, not only have new deposits been continuously discovered and reserves been increased in some old mining districts and in their surrounding areas, but some new metallogenic provinces and a group of tin deposits of industrial value have also been identified.
The tin deposits of China consist of primary and placer types, with the former predominating. China’s tin placers are mainly distributed in areas where primary tin deposits are concentrated in the South China tin province, mostly near the Tropic of Cancer. This paper deals mainly with the distribution or primary tin deposits and their metallogenic conditions.
The primary tin deposits occur mainly in geosynclinal fold belts. Examples are the tin province of the South China fold system, the tin province of the Daxinganling fold system and the Jilin-Heilungjiang fold system, and the tin province of the Sanjiang fold system [in the middle and upper reaches of the Jinsha, Lancang (Mekong) and Nujiang (Salween) Rivers]. Tin deposits are also distributed in theTianshan, Qilian, Kunlun and Qinling fold system. As for platform regions, tin deposits mainly occur in the Yangtze paraplatform. Several tin anomalies have also been found in the Sino-Korean paraplatform. Based on the results of geological investigations conducted in recent years, this paper introduces the distribution of tin deposits of China and discusses briefly their regional metallogenic conditions (Fig. 1).
KeywordsBiotite Granite Fold System Granite Masse Yenshanian Granite Metallogenic Condition
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