Determination of Elements in Normal Urothelium and Bladder Carcinoma by X-Ray Microanalysis

  • R. Friedrichs
  • W.-G. Burchard
  • H. Rübben
  • W. Lutzeyer
Conference paper


X-ray microanalysis (also called electron probe microanalysis, energy-dispersive microanalysis, and EDX) combines the possibility of a very sensitive elemental analysis with the localization of elements by the electron microscope. It is based on a finely focused electron probe over a sample surface to excite a characteristic X-ray emission. Measurements of the total amounts of elements can detect concentrations as small as 10−18 to 10−19g (Baker 1985; Hall and Gupta 1984; Roomans 1983).


Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Bladder Carcinoma Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Normal Urothelium Carbon Block 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Friedrichs
    • 1
  • W.-G. Burchard
    • 2
  • H. Rübben
    • 1
  • W. Lutzeyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyRWTH AachenAachenGermany
  2. 2.Central Electron Microscopy LaboratoryRWTH AachenAachenGermany

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