Liver Transplantation: State of the Art

  • Roger Williams
  • Rex J. Polson
  • John G. O’Grady
Conference paper

Abstract

Starzl carried out the first human liver transplant in 1963, and the first liver graft of the Cambridge/King’s College Hospital series was performed by Calne in 1968. Two other groups with considerable early experience in this field were led by Pichlmayr in Hannover and Krom in Groningen. The data given by these groups and by the other participants in the National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference in 1983 led to the following conclusion: “Liver transplantation is a therapeutic modality for end stage liver disease that deserves broader application” (NIHCDC 1984). This has been followed by a very rapid increase in the number of centres in America and Europe which have either initiated or are planning programmes, as well as marked expansion in the already established transplant programmes. Consequently there has been an exponential increase in the number of patients receiving orthotopic liver transplants in Great Britain, Europe and the United States (Fig. 1). This increase in the number of patients transplanted has been matched by a rapid rise in the number of donor organs offered to our liver transplant co-ordinator between 1982 and 1985 (Fig. 2).

Keywords

Cholesterol Hepatitis Europe Oncol Radionuclide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bilheimer DW, Goldstein JL, Grundy SM, Starzl TE, Brown MS (1984) Liver transplantation to provide low-density-lipoproteinreceptors and lower plasma cholesterol in a child with homozygous familial hypercholesteraemia. N Engl J Med 311:1658–1664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bontempo FA, Lewis JH, van Thiel DH, Spero JA, Ragni MB, Butler P, Isreal L, Starzl TE (1985) The relation of preoperative coagulation finding to diagnosis, blood usage and survival in adult liver transplantation. Transplantation 39: 532–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Calne RY, Rolles K, Forman JV, Kneeshaw JD, Smith DP, Wheeldon DR (1984) Veno-arterial bypass in orthotopic liver grafting. Lancet 2:1269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gartner JC, Zitelli BJ, Malatack J J, Shaw BW, Iwatsuki S, Starzl TE (1984) Orthotopic liver transplantation in children: two year experience with 47 patients. Paediatrics 74:140–145Google Scholar
  5. Krom RAF, Kingman LM, Wesenhagen W, Slooff MJH, Haagsma EB, Grips CH (1984) Chole-dochocholedochostomy is successful in orthotopic liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 16(5): 1228–1229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Mittal R, Kowal C, Starzl T, van Thiel D, Bron K, Iwatsuki S, Schade R, Straub W, Dekker A (1984) Accuracy of computerized tomography in determining hepatic tumour size in patients receiving liver transplantation or resection. J Clin Oncol 2(6): 637–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement (1984) Liver transplantation - June 20–23, 1983. Hepatology [Suppl] 4Google Scholar
  8. Neuberger JM, Portmann B, Macdougall B, Calne RY, Williams R (1982). Recurrence of primary biliary cirrhosis after liver transplantation. N Engl J Med 306:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Neuberger JM, Portmann B, Calne RY, Williams R (1984) Recurrence of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis following orthotopic liver grafting. Transplantation 37: 363–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Neuberger JM, Altman DG, Christensen E, Tygstrup N, Williams R (1986) Use of a prognostic index in liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis. Transplantation (in press)Google Scholar
  11. Shaw BW, Martin DJ, Marquez JM, Kang YG, Bugbee AC, Iwatsuki S, Griffith BP, Hardesty RL, Bahnson HT, Starzl TE (1984) Venous bypass in clinical liver transplantation. Ann Sug 200: 524–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Starzl TE (ed) (1969) Experience in liver transplantation. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Starzl TE, Bilheimer DW, Bahnson HT, Shaw BW, Hardesty RL, Griffith BP, Iwatsuki S, Zitelli BJ, Gartner JC, Malatack J J, Urbach AH (1984) Heart-liver transplantation in a patient with familial hypercholesteremia. Lancet 1: 1382–1383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wall WJ, Duff JH, Ghent CN, Stiller CR, Keown PA, Kutt JL (1985) Liver transplantation the initial experience of a Canadian centre. 28: 286–289Google Scholar
  15. Watts RWE, Calne RY, Williams R, Mansell MA, Veall N, Purkiss P, Rolles K (1985) Primary hyperoxaluria (Type 1): attempted treatment by combined hepatic and renal transplantation. Q J Med 57: 697–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Williams R, Gimson AES (1984) An assessment of orthotopic liver transplantation in acute liver failure. Hepatology 4: 225–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Van Thiel DH, Tarter R, Gavaler JSD, Potanko WM, Schade RR (1986) Liver transplantation in adults. An analysis of costs and benefits at the University of Pittsburg. Gastroenterology 90: 211–216Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger Williams
    • 1
  • Rex J. Polson
    • 1
  • John G. O’Grady
    • 1
  1. 1.Liver UnitKing’s College Hospital and School of Medicine and DentistryLondonUK

Personalised recommendations