Advertisement

Scintigraphic Evaluation of Organ Dysfunction in Thalassemia

  • J. Malamitsi

Abstract

Conventional radiology has been extensively used in assessing abnormalities caused by β-thalassemia. In contrast, there are very few references in the international literature to scintigraphic findings in this disease. Nuclear Medicine, however, offers a cheap and widely available means of evaluating functional disorders of various organs occurring in patients with this innate defect of hemopoiesis. In this chapter, the relevant literature will be reviewed. The scintigraphic images presented originate from personal data.

Keywords

Thalassemic Patient Thalassemia Major Extramedullary Hematopoiesis Scintigraphic Evaluation Bone Marrow Uptake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Agnello D, Bruno R, Malizia R, Volpe FP, Lo Iacono F (1985) Ecografìa e scintigrafìa epatica e splenica in soggetti β-thalassemici politrasfusi. Minerva Pediatr 37: 587–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ask-Upmark E (1945) Tumour simulating intrathoracic heterotopia of bone marrow. Acta Radiol 26: 425–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baker DH (1964) Roentgen manifestations of Cooley’s anemia. Ann NY Acad Sei 119: 641–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beard ME, Necheles TF, Allen DM (1969) Clinical experience with intensive transfusion therapy in Cooley’s anemia. Ann NY Acad Sei 165: 415–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bronn LJ, Paquelet JR, Tetalman MR (1980) Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: appearance on 99m Tc-sulphur colloid marrow scan. AJR 134: 1254–1255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Caffey J (1957) Cooley’s anemia: a review of roentgenographic findings in the skeleton. AJR 78: 381–391Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Charache S, Page DL (1967) Infarction of bone marrow in the sickle cell disorders. Ann Intern Med 67: 1195–1200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Choremis C, Liakakos D, Tseshi C, Moschova-kis C (1965) Pathogenesis of osseous lesions in thalassemia. J Pediatr 66: 962–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Datz FL, Taylor A (1985) The clinical use of radionuclide bone marrow imaging. Semin Nucl Med 15: 239–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dines DM, Canale VC, Arnold WD (1976) Fractures in thalassemia. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 58: 662–666Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Doury P (1970) Osteoarthritis and osteitis with multiple foci in the course of septicemia due to salmonella reading complicating thalasso-drepa-regional EF in the lateral and inferoapical segments, as seen on the regional wall motion image (right). (Courtesy of Associate Professor P. Kostamis and Dr. D. T. Kremastinos-Alexandra and Genikon Kratikon Hospitals, Athens) nocytosis. (Fr) Rev Rhum 37: 359–366Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ehlers KH, Levin AR, Klein AA, Markensen AL, O’Loughlin JE Jr, Engle MA (1981) The cardiac manifestations of thalassemia major; natural history, noninvasive cardiac diagnostic studies and results of cardiac catheterization. In Engle, Pediatric Cardiovascular Disease, Cardiovasc Clin vol 2, Davis, Philadelphia pp 176–186Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Engelhard D, Cividalli G, Rachmilewitz EA (1975) Splenectomy in homozygous beta thalassemia: a retrospective study of 30 patients. Br J Haematol 31: 391–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Engle MA (1964) Cardiac involvement in Cooley’s anemia. Ann NY Acad Sci 119: 694–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Engle MA, Erlandson M, Smith CH (1964) Late cardiac complications of chronic, severe, refractory anemia with hemochromatosis. Circulation 30: 698–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Exarchou E, Politis C, Vretos E,’Pasparakis D, Doganis A, Caramerou A (1981) Fractures and epiphyseal deformities in beta-thalassemia (Gr) Ellen Heirourg Orthop 32: 217–223Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fordham EW, Ali A (1981) Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow. Semin Hematol 18: 222–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Freeman AP, Giles RW, Berdoukas VA, Walsh WF, Choy D, Murray PC (1983) Early left ventricular dysfunction and chelation therapy in thalassemia major. Ann Intern Med 99: 450–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gabrielle OF (1971) Hypoparathyroidism associated with thalassemia. South Med J64: 115–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Giraud P, Orsini A, Muratore R (1959) Le foie dans la maladie de Cooley. Pediatrie 14: 125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gordon HW, (1959) Hemopoietic Physiol Rev 39: 1–40Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gordon HS (1970) Regulation of hematopoiesis, vol 1. Red cell production. Appleton-Century- Crofts, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gratwick GM, Bullough PG, Bohne WHO, Mar-kenson AL, Peterson CM (1978) Thalassemic osteoarthropathy. Ann Intern Med 88: 494–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gyftaki E, Binopoulos D, Kesse-Elias M, Kara-katsanis K, Alevizou-Terzaki V (1971) Liver image studies in homozygous Beta thalassemia by the scintillation camera. In: Nuklearmedizin, Radionuklide in der Hämatologie. Gegenwärtiger Stand der Therapie mit Radionukliden. 9. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin. Schattauer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Henry WL, Nienhuis AW, Weiner M etal. (1978) Echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with transfusion-dependent anemia and secondary myocardial iron deposition. Am J Med 64: 547–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hewstone AS, Davidson GP (1972) Yersinia enterocolitica septicaemia with arthritis in a tha-lassaemic child. Med J Aust 1: 1035–1038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Karpathios TH (1978) Abrupt spleen size changes in homozygous β-thalassemia. Thesis, University of Athens, Athens.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Karpathios TH, Antypas A, Dimitriou P, Nicolai-dou P, Fretzayas A, Thomaidis T, Matsaniotis N (1982) Spleen size changes in children with homozygous -thalassemia in relation to blood transfusion. Scand J Haematol 28: 220–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Knoblich R (1960) Extramedullar hematopoiesis presenting as intrathoracic tumors: report of a case in a patient with thalassemia minor. Cancer 13: 462–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kremastinos DT, Toutouzas PK, Vyssoulis GP, Venetis CA, Avgoustakis DG (1984) Iron overload and left ventricular performance in β-thalassemia. Acta Cardiologica 39: 29–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Leon MB, Borer JS, Bacharach SL, Green MV, Benz EJ, Griffith P, Nienhuis AW (1979) Detection of early cardiac dysfunction in patients with severe beta-thalassemia and chronic iron overload. N Engl J Med 301: 1143–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    MacDonald RA, Mallory GK (1960) Hemochromatosis and hemosiderosis; study of 211 autop-sied cases. Arch Intern Med 105: 686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    MacDonald RA (1964) Hemochromatosis and hemosiderosis. Thomas, Springfield pp 3, 94, 207Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Malamos B, Papavasiliou C, Avramidis A (1962) Tumour-simulating intrathoracic extramedul-lary hemopoiesis: report of a case. Acta Radiol 57: 227–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    March HW, Schlyer SM, Schwartz EE (1952) Mediterranean hemopathic syndrome (Cooley’s anemia) in adults: study of a family with unusual complications. Am J Med 13: 46–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Masera G, Jean G, Gazzola G, Novakova M (1976) Role of chronic hepatitis in development of thalassemic liver disease. Arch Dis Child 51: 680–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Masera G, Jean G, Conter V, Terzoli S, Mauri RA, CazzanigaM (1980) Sequential study of liver biopsy in thalassemia. Arch Dis Child 55: 800–802Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Middlebrook JE (1956) Thalassemia in a family of pure German extraction. N. Engl J Med 255: 815–817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Newton KL, McNeely SG, Novick M (1983) Extramedullary hematopoiesis presenting as a pelvic mass in a patient with β-thalassemia intermedia. JAMA 250: 2178–2179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    O’Brien RT, Pearson HA, Spencer RP (1972) Transfusion induced decrease in spleen size in thalassemia major: documentation by radioisotopic scan. J Pediatr 81: 105–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Oseas RS, Siddiqui AR, Wellman HN (1982) Usefulness of bone marrow imaging in childhood malignancies. J Pediatr 101: 206–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Paik CH, Alavi I, Dunca G, Weiner L (1970) Thalassemia and gouty arthritis. JAMA 213: 296–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Papavasiliou CG (1965) Tumor simulating intrathoracic extramedullary hemopoiesis. Clinical and roentgenologic considerations. AJR 93: 695–702Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Politis C, Karamerou A, Block MH, Mahmoud LA (1982) Iron and calcium abnormalities in adolescents with beta-thalassemia major. International Congress, ISH-ISBT, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Robinson AE, Rosse WF, Goodrich JK (1968) Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: A scan diagnosis. J Nucl Med 9: 416–419Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sebes JI, Massie JD, White TJ, Kraus AP (1984) Pelvic extramedullary hematopoiesis. J Nucl Med 25: 209–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sella EJ, Goodman AH (1973) Arthropathy secondary to transfusion hemochromatosis. J Bone Joint Surg (AM) 55: 1077–1081Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stohlman FJr (1962) Erythropoiesis. New Engl J Med 267: 342–348, 392–399Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Talbott JH (1959) Gout and blood dyscrasias. Medicine (Baltimore) 38: 173–205Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tsachalos P (1960) Gout secondary to thalassemia (minor form of Cooley’s disease). (Fr) Rev Rhum 27: 414–416Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Valdez VA, Jacobstein JG (1980) Decreased bone uptake of technetium-99m polyphosphate in thalassemia major. J Nucl Med 21: 47–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Van Dyke D, Shkurkin C, Price D, Yano Y, Anger HO (1967) Differences in distribution of erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial marrow in hematologic disease. Blood 30: 364–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vierucci A, London WT, Blumberg BS, Sutnick AI, Ragazzini F (1972) Australian antigen and antibody in transfused children with thalassemia. Arch Dis Child 47: 760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wolman IJ (1964) Transfusion therapy in Cooley’s anemia. Growth and health as related to long range hemoglobin levels. A progress report. Ann NY Acad Sci 119: 736–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zaino EC (1980) Pathophysiology of thalassemia. Ann NY Acad Sci 344: 284–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Malamitsi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations