Critical Assessment Issues in Disordered Sleep and Wakefulness

  • K.-O. Liebmann


The purpose of this paper is to introduce internists and other medical practitioners to critical issues in the assessment of disturbed sleep and wakefulness. The emphasis will be on listening, clinical observation, a careful history, and attention to epidemiology as necessary elements of diagnosis so that the polysomnogram and other laboratory findings are put into their proper context. Physicians need to be mindful that biological and psychosocial factors play a role in causing and sustaining disordered sleep. This awareness will heighten their ability to recognize, treat, and properly refer patients with these afflictions.


Sleep Disorder Personality Disorder Daytime Sleepiness Panic Disorder Excessive Somnolence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Association of Sleep Disorders Centers (1979) Diagnostic classification of sleep and arousal disorders, 1st ed. Sleep 2Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Institute of Medicine (1979) Sleeping pills, insomnia, and medical practice. National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC, p 48Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Coleman RM et al (1982) Sleep-wake disorders based on a polysomnographic diagnosis — a national cooperative study. JAMA 247(7):997–1003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coleman RM (1983) Diagnosis treatment and follow-up of about 8,000 sleep/wake disorder patients. In: Guilleminault C, Lugaresi E (eds) Sleep/wake disorders: natural history, epidemiology, and long-term evolution. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kupfer DJ, Foster FG (1978) EEG sleep and depression. IN: William R, Karacan I (eds) Sleep disorders diagnosis and treatment. Wiley, New York, pp 163–204Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Weissmann MM, Merikangas KR (1986) The epidemiology of anxiety and panic disorders: an update. J Clin Psychiatry 47(6) [Suppl]: 11–17Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lesser IM, Rubin RT (1983) Diagnostic considerations in panic disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 47(6) [Suppl]:6Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd edn (1980) American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC, pp 236–238Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hauri P Fisher J (1986) Persistent psychophysiologic (learned) insomnia. Sleep 9(1):38–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hawkins DR, Taub JM, Van de Castle RL (1985) Extended sleep (hypersomnia) in young depressed patients. Am J Psychiatry 142:905–910PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • K.-O. Liebmann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations