Efficacy of Psychological Treatments for Mental Illness: A Review of Papers in the English Language

  • R. J. Daly
  • H. A. Ross
Conference paper


Doctors have always been eager to see their personal interactions with their patients as being part of the art of medicine. Until the time of Freud they were extremely reluctant to examine critically the nature of these interactions and their effects on the course of illnesses of their patients. There has, however, been increasing interest in examining the possibilities for applying the methodological rigour previously only used in physical treatments, to psychological treatments. This workshop concerns itself with pointing to needs for further research. In earlier papers I have reviewed the problems concerning research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy in general (Daly 1983), and for psychoses in particular (Daly 1984).


Mental Illness Schizophrenic Patient Psychological Treatment Family Therapy Cognitive Therapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams M (1978) How should we measure outcome in psychotherapy? Br J Psychiatry 132:595–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayllon T, Azrin NH (1968) The token economy: a motivational system for therapy and rehabilitation. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews G, Harvey R (1981) Does psychotherapy benefit neurotic patients? Arch Gen Psychiatry 38:1203–1208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baehr G (1954) The comparative effectiveness of individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and a combination of these methods. J Consult Psychol 18:179–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bannister D (1983) Personal construct psychotherapy. Br J Hosp Med 30:72–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bari Koalta G (1981) Clinical trial of psychotherapies is under way. Science 212:432–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck J, Golden S, Arnold F (1981) An empirical investigation of psychotherapy with schizophrenic patients. Schizophr Bull 7:241–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blackburn I, Bishop S, Glen A, Whalley L, Christie J (1981) The efficacy of cognitive therapy in depression: a treatment trial using cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy, each alone and in combination. Br J Psychiatry 139:181–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blau T (1950) Report on a method of predicting success in psychotherapy. J Clin Psychol 6:403–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bloch S, Bond F, Quails B, Yalam I, Zimmerman E (1977) Outcome in psychotherapy evaluated by independent judges. Br J Psychiatry 131:410–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boras J, Anastasia M, Casoni R, Dello Russo R, DiMascio L, Fusco L, Rubenstein J, Snyder M (1979) Psychotherapy in the goldfish bowl.Arch Gen Psychiatry 36:187–190Google Scholar
  12. Bovill D (1977) An outcome study of group psychotherapy. Br J Psychiatry 131:95–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brauer A, Horlick L, Nelson E, Farquhar J, Agras W (1979) Relaxation therapy for essential hypertension: a veterans administration outpatient study. J Behav Med 2:21–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bordaty H, Andrews G (1983) Brief psychotherapy in family practice. Br J Psychiatry 143:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burgoyne R, Acosta F, Yamatomo J (1983) Telephone prompting to increase attendance at a psychiatric outpatient clinic. Am J Psychiatry 140:345–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Burke J, White H, Havens L (1979) Which shortterm therapy? Arch Gen Psychiatry 36:177–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chevron E, Rounsaville B (1983) Evaluating the clinical skills of psychotherapists: a comparison of techniques. Arch Gen Psychiatry 40:1129–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Childress A, Burns D (1981) The basics of cognitive therapy. Psychosomatics 22:1017–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chodoff P (1982) Assessment of psychotherapy: reflections of a practitioner. Arch Gen Psychiatry 39:1097–1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cristol A (1972) Studies of outcome of psychotherapy. Compr Psychiatry 13:189–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Culliton B, Waterfall W (1980) Assessing the benefits. Br Med J 280:917–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cummings N (1977) The anatomy of psychotherapy under National Health Insurance. Am Psychol 32:711–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dagadakis C, Hunt D, Carr J (1981) Pragmatic issues in design and implementation of a psychotherapy outcome study. Hosp Commun Psychiatry 32:858–861Google Scholar
  24. Daly R (1983) Special problems in evaluation of psychotherapy. In: Helgason T (ed) Methodology in evaluation of psychiatric treatment. Cambridge University-Press, pp 123- 136Google Scholar
  25. Daly R (1984) Psychotherapy of schizophrenia. In: Helgason T (ed) Needed areas of research on long-term treatment of functional psychoses. Cambridge University Press, pp 59–76Google Scholar
  26. Earll L, Kincey J (1982) Clinical psychology in general practice: a controlled trial evaluation. J R Coll Gen Pract 32:32–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ellis A (1957) Outcome of employing three techniques of psychotherapy. J Clin Psychol 13:344–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Emanuel E (1983) Some thoughts about psychotherapy. Can Med Ass J 128:460–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Epstein N, Vlok L (1981) Research on the results of psychotherapy. Am J Psychiatry 138:1027–1035PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Eysenck H (1952) The effects of psychotherapy: an evaluation. J Consult Clin Psychol 16:319–324Google Scholar
  31. Eysenck H (1965) The effects of psychotherapy. Int J Psychiatry 1:99–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fiske D, Cartwright D, Kirtner W (1964) Are psychotherapeutic changes predictable? J Ab- nor Soc Psychol 69:418–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Follette W, Cummings N (1967) Psychiatric services and medical utilization in a prepaid health plan setting. Med Care 5:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Frank J (1971) Therapeutic factors in psychotherapy. Am J Psychother 25:350–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Garfield S (1973) Basic ingredients of common factors in psychotherapy? J Consult Clin Psychol 41:9–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gelder M, Marks I, Wolff H, Clarke M (1967) Desensitization and psychotherapy in the treatment of phobic states: a controlled inquiry. Br J Psychiatry 113:53–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gillan P, Rachman S (1974) An experimental investigation of desensitization in phobic patients. Br J Psychiatry 124:392–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Glass R (1984) Psychotherapy — scientific art or artistic science? Arch Gen Psychiatry 41:525- 526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Goldberg I, Krantz G, Locke B (1970) Effect of a short-term out-patient psychiatric therapy benefit on the utilization of medical services in a prepaid group practice medical program. Med Care 8:419–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Goldfried M (1982) On the history of therapeutic integration. Behav Ther 13:572–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Greenspan S, Sharfstein S (1981) efficacy of psychotherapy: a: asking the right questions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38:1213–1219Google Scholar
  42. Gwynne-Jones H (1978) Psychological aspects of treatment of in-patients. In: Wing J (ed) Schizophrenia: towards a new synthesis. Academic Press, pp 189–209Google Scholar
  43. Hogarty GE, Goldberg SC (1973) Drugs and sociotherapy in the post hospital maintenance of schizophrenic patients: 1 year relapse rates. Arch Gen Pschiatr 28:54Google Scholar
  44. Hussain M (1971) Desensitization and flooding (implosion) in treatment of phobias. Am J Psychiatry 127:1509–1514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kane J, Quitkin F, Rifkin A, Wegner J, Roenberg G, Borenstein M (1983). Attitudinal changes of involuntarily committed patients following treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry 40:374–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kazdin A, Wilson G (1978) Criteria for evaluating psychotherapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35:407–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kelly GA (1955) The psychology of personal constructs, vols 1 and 2. Northon, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Klein D, Zitrin C, Waerner M, Ross D (1983) Treatment of phobias: 2. Arch Gen Psychiatry 40:139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Klerman G, DiMascio A, Weissman M, Prusoff B, Paykel E (1974) Treatment of depression by drugs and psychotherapy. Am J Psychiatry 131:186–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kovacs M, Rush A, Beck A, Hollon S (1981) Depressed outpatients treated with cognitive therapy or pharmacotherapy: a one-year follow-up. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38:33–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lazarus A (1963) The results of behaviour therapy in 126 cases of severe neurosis. Behav Res Ther 1:69–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leff J, Kuipers L, Berkowitz R, Eberlein-Vries R, Sturgeon D (1982) A controlled trial of social intervention in the families of schizophrenic patients. Br J Psychiatry 141:121–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lesser A (1979) Psychotherapy, benefits and costs. Psychiatr J Univ Ottawa 4:191–196Google Scholar
  54. Lolas F, Mergenthaler E, Von Rad M (1982) Content analysis of verbal behaviour in psychotherapy research: a comparison between two methods. Br J Med Psychol 55:327–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. London P, Klerman G (1982) Evaluating psychotherapy. Am J Psychiatry 139:709–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Luborsky L, McLellan A (1978) Our suprising in ability to predict the outcomes of psychological treatments. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 5:387–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Luborsky L, Chandler M, Auerbach A, Cohen J, Bachrach H (1971) Factors influencing the outcome of psychotherapy. Psychol Bull 75:145–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Luborsky L, Singer B, Luborsky L (1975) Comparative studies of psychotherapies — Is it true that “Everyone has won and all must have prizes?” Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:995–1002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Luborsky L, Mintz J, Auerbach A, Christoph C, Bachrach H, Todd T, Johnson M, Cohen M, O’Brien C (1980) Predicting the outcome of psychotherapy — Findings on the Penn psychotherapy project. Arch Gen Psychiatry 37:471–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Malan D (1973) The outcome in psychotherapy research: a historical review. Arch Gen Psychiatry 29:719–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Malan DH (1976) The frontier of brief psychotherapy. Plenum Medical Books, New York Marks I (1976) The current status of behavioural psychotherapy: theory and practice. Am J Psychiatry 133:253–261Google Scholar
  62. Marmor J (1971) Dynamic psychotherapy and behaviour therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 24:22–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Marshall E (1980) Psychotherapy Works, but for whom? Science 207:506–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Marziali E (1984) Prediction of outcome of brief psychotherapy from therapist interpretive interventions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41:301–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. May P (1973) Research in psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. Int J Psychiatry 11:78–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. May P (1980) Schizophrenia: evaluation of treatment methods. In: Kaplan, Freedman, Sa- dock (eds) Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry vol III. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore pp 2151–2175Google Scholar
  67. McCord J (1978) A thirty-year follow-up of treatment effects. Am Psychol 33:284–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McGlashan T (1982) DSM-111 schizophrenia and individual psychotherapy. J Nerv Ment Dis 170:752–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mintz J, Luborsky L, Christoph P (1979) Measuring the outcomes of psychotherapy: findings of the Penn Psychotherapy project. J Consult Clin Psychol 47:319–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. O’Brien C, Hamm K, Ray B, Pierce J, Luborsky L, Mintz J (1972) Group vs individual psychotherapy with schizophrenics. Arch Gen Psychiatry 27:474–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Parloff M (1976) Shopping for the right therapy. Saturday Rev 3:14–20Google Scholar
  72. Parloff M (1980) Psychotherapy and research: an anaelitie depression. Psychiatry 43:279- 292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Parloff MB (1984) Psychotherapy Research and its Incredible Credibility Crisis. Clin Psychol Rev 4:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Prioleau L, Murdock M, Brody N (1983). An analysis of psychotherapy versus placebo studies. Behav Brain Sci 6:295–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rogers C (1957) The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. J Consult Psychol 21:95–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Roth L, Wolford J, Meisel A (1980) Patient access to records: tonic or toxin? Am J Psychiatry 137:592–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Rounsaville B, Klerman G, Weissman M (1981) Do psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for depression conflict? empirical evidence from a clinical trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38:24–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Rush A, Beck A, Kovacs M, Hollon S (1977) Comparative efficacy of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressed outpatients. Cognitive Ther Res 1:17– 37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rush A, Beck A, Kovacs M, Weissenburger J, Hollon S (1982) Comparison of the effects of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy on hopelessness and self-concept. Am J Psychiatry 139:862–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Segraves R, Smith R (1976) Concurrent psychotherapy and behaviour therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:756–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Shepherd M (1984) What price psychotherapy? Br Med J 288:309–310Google Scholar
  82. Sifneos PE (1973) Short term psychotherapy and emotional crisis. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  83. Sloane R, Staples F, Cristol A, Yorkston N, Whipple K (1975) Short-term analytically oriented psychotherapy versus behaviour therapy. Am J Psychiatry 132:373–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Smith ML (1982) What research says about the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Hosp Com- mun Psychiatry 33:457–461Google Scholar
  85. Smith ML, Glass GV (1977) Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies. Am Psychol 32:752–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Smith ML, Glass GV, Miller TI (1980) The benefits of psychotherapy. Johns Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  87. Strupp H (1973) The interpersonal relationship as a vehicle for therapeutic learning. J Consult Clin Psychol 41:13–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Strupp H (1980 a) Success and failure in time-limited psychotherapy: a systematic comparison of two gases: comparison 1. Arch Gen Psychiatry 37:595–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Strupp H (1980 b) Success and failure in time-limited psychotherapy: a systematic comparison of two cases: comparison 2. Arch Gen Psychiatry 37:708–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Strupp H (1980 c) Success and failure in time-limited psychotherapy: with special reference to the performance of a lay counselor (3). Arch Gen Psychiatry 37:831–841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Strupp H (1980 a) Success and failure in time-limited psychotherapy: further evidence — comparison 4. Arch Gen Psychiatry 37:947–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Strupp H, Hadley S (1979) Specific vs nonspecific factors in psychotherapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36:1125–1136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Vaughn CE, Leff JP (1976) The influence of family and source factors on the course of psychiatric illness: a comparison of schizophrenia and depressed neurotic patients. Br J Psy- chiatr 129:125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Weissman M (1979) The psychological treatment of depression: evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapy alone, in comparison with, and in combination with pharmacotherapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36:1261–1269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Weissman M, Rounsaville B, Chevron E (1982) Training psychotherapists to participate in psychotherapy outcome studies. Am J Psychiatry 139:1442–1446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Woody G, Luborsky L, McLellan A, O’Brien C, Beck A, Blaine J, Herman I, Hole A (1983) Psychotherapy for opiate addicts: does it help? Arch Gen Psychiatry 40:639–645PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. Daly
    • 1
  • H. A. Ross
  1. 1.Cork Regional HospitalUniversity Department of PsychiatryWilton, CorkIreland

Personalised recommendations