Amphotropic Envelope/Receptor Interactions

  • Pierre Rodrigues
  • Jean-Michel Heard
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 105)


The amino-terminal domain of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) envelope glycoproteins (SU) is sufficient for binding cell surface receptors and mediating entry into cells. This domain is an anti-parallel ß sandwich with two helical subdomains forming loops adjacent to the ß-sandwich. The loops contains the determinants involved in receptor recognition. A purified 208 aminoacid fragment containing the amphotropic receptor binding domain competes with the binding of amphotropic particles and inhibits the entry of amphotropic retrovirus vectors. Concentrations inhibiting entry appeared much lower than that required to abolish binding. This suggested that only a fraction of the receptors are competent for processing retrovirus entry. Requirement for cell factors or for association with specific cell structure may account for this restriction. Alternatively, the association of several receptor molecules may be required for processing entry. Scatchard analysis performed with 125I-labeled AS208 showed curvilinear plots with downward concavity, indicating that receptor cooperativity participates in binding efficiency.

The amphotropic receptor is the Pit-2 molecule encoded by the ram-1 gene. It is a multiple transmembrane protein which functions as a phosphate/Na symporter. Sequence analysis predict 10 transmembrane domains, 5 extracellular loops and intracellular N- and C-terminal extremities. We inserted all amino acid epitope of the VSV G protein at various locations including the extracellular loop 5 and the C-terminal extremity. The tagged receptors were expressed in CHO cells which do not express the amphotropic receptor naturally. Virus particle binding and infection mediated by tagged or wild type receptors were equivalent. Axiti-VSV-G mAbs immunoprecipitated a 70kDa glycosylated receptor molecules in transfected cells. Flowcytometry and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that, in contrast with the predicted topology, the C-terminal epitope is extracellular. In naive cells, the signal was homogeneously spread over the plasma membrane. After one hour incubation with virus particles, the signal condensed as large granulations. This observation was consistent with the hypothesis of a clustering of the amphotropic receptor in response to particle binding. Spatial reorganization of the receptors was observed in response to phosphate. High phosphate concentration induced spreading of the receptor and inhibited virus entry. In contrast, phosphate starvation induced receptor aggregation, induced pictures evoking stress cable formation and membrane ruffling, and increased virus entry. Actin staining confirmed colocalization of cell surface receptors with intracellular actin filaments. Colocalization was still observed after Cytochalasine D treatment, which disrupt actin network. Virus entry was completely abolished in the presence of cytochalasine. These data show that association of the amphotropic receptor with cytoskeleton structures plays a crucial role in virus entry. We are currently investigating the signalisation pathways stimulated by virus particle binding which induce receptor reorganisation and allow for virus entry into cells.


Murine Leukemia Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Virus Binding Hydrophilic Loop Amino Acid Epitope 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Battini, J. L., Heard, J. M. and Danos, O. (1992). Receptor choice determinants in the envelope glycoproteins of amphotropic, xenotropic and polytropic murine leukemia viruses. J. Virol. 66, 1468–1475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Choppin, J., Schaffar-Deshayes, L., Debré, P. and Lévy, J. P. (1981). Lymphoïd cell surface receptor for moloney leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein gp71. J. Immunol. 126, 2347–2351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cosset, F. L., Morling, F. J., Takeuchi, Y., Weiss, R. A., Collins, M. K. L. and Russel, S. J. (1995). Retroviral retargeting by envelopes expressing N-terminal binding domain. J. Virol. 69, 6314–6322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. De Larco, J. and Todaro, G. J. (1976). Membrane receptors for Murine Leukemia Viruses: characterization using the purified viral envelope glycoprotein, gp71. Cell 8, 365–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eiden, M. V., Farrell, K., Warsowe, J., Mahan, L. C. and Wilson, C. A. (1993). Characterization of a naturally occurring ecotropic receptor that does not facilitate entry of all ecrotropic murine retroviruses. J. Virol. 67, 4056–4061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Etienne-Julan, M., Roux, P., Carillo, S., Jeanteur, P. and Piechaczyk, M. (1992). The efficiency of cell targeting by recombinant retroviruses depends on the nature of the receptor and the composition of the artificial cell-virus linker. J. Gen. Virol. 73, 3251–3255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fowler, A. K., Twardzik, D. R., Reed, C. D., Weislow, O. S. and Heilman, A. (1977). Binding characteristics of Rauscher leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein gp71 to murine lymphoid cells. J. Virol. 24, 729–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gray, K. D. and Roth, M. (1993). Mutational analysis of the envelope gene of Moloney murine leukemia virus. J. Virol. 67, 3489–3496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Heard, J. M. and Danos, O. (1991). An amino-terminal fragment of the Friend Murine Leukemia Virus envelope glycoprotein binds the ecotropic receptor. J. Virol 65, 4026–4032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Johnson, P. A. and Rosner, M. R (1986). Characterization of murine-specific leukemia virus receptor from L cells. J. Virol. 58, 900–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Jones, J. S. and Risser, R (1993). Cell fusion induced by the murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein. J Virol 67, 67–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kabat, D. (1995). Targeting retroviral vectors to specific cells. Science 269, 417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kadan, M. J., Sturm, S., Anderson, W. F. and Eglitis, M. A. (1992). Detection of receptorspecific murine leukemia virus binding to cells by immunofluorescence analysis. J. Virol. 66, 2281–2287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kalyanaraman, V. S., Sarngadharan, M. G. and Gallo, R. C. (1978). Characterization of Rauscher murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein receptor in membranes from murine fibroblasts. J. Virol 28, 686–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kasahara, N., Dozy, A. M. and Kan, Y. W. (1994). Tissue-specific targeting of retroviral vectors through ligand-receptor interactions. Science 266, 1373–1376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kavanaugh, M. P., Miller, D. G., Zhang, W., Law, W., Kozak, S. L., Kabat, D. and Miller, A. D. (1994). Cell-surface receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus and amphotropic murine retrovirus are inducible sodium-dependent phosphate symporters. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 7071–7075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kim, J. W., Closs, E. I., Albritton, L. M. and Cunningham, J. M. (1991). Transport of cationic amino acids by the mouse ecotropic retrovirus receptor. Nature 352, 725–728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kozak, S. L., Siess, D. C., Kavanaugh, P., Miller, A. D. and Kabat, D. (1995). The envelope glycoprotein of an amphotropic murine retrovirus binds specifically to the cellular receptor/phosphate transporter of susceptible species. J. Virol. 69, 3433–3440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Linder, M., Linder, D., Hahnen, J., Schott, H. H. and Stirm, S. (1992). Localization of the intrachain disulfide bonds of the envelope glycoprotein 71 from Friend murine leukemia virus. Eur. J. Biochem 203, 65–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Linder, M., Wenzel, V., Linder, D. and Stinn, S. (1994). Structural elements in glycoprotein 70 from polytropic Friend mink cell focus-inducing virus and glycoprotein 71 from ecotropic Friend murine leukemia virus, as defined by disulfide-bonding pattern and limited proteolysis. J. Virol. 68, 5133–5141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. McGrath, M. S., Declève, A., Lieberman, M., Kaplan, H. S. and Weissman, L. (1978). Specificity of cell surface virus receptors on radiation leukemia virus and radiation-induced thymic lymphomas. J. Virol. 28, 819–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. McGrath, M. S. and Weissman, I. L. (1979). AKR leukemogenesis: Identification and biological significance of thymic lymphoma receptors for AKR retroviruses. Cell 17, 65–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McKrell, A. J., Soong, N. W., Curtis, C. M. and Anderson, F. (1996). Identification of a subdomain in the Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein involved in receptor binding. J. Virol. 70, 1768–1774.Google Scholar
  24. Morgan, R. A., Nussbaum, O., Muenchau, D. D., Shu, L., Couture, L. and Anderson, W. F. (1993). Analysis of the functional and host range-determining regions of the murine ecotropic and amphotropic retrovirus envelope proteins. J. Virol. 67, 4712–4721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Nussbaum, O., Roop, A. and Anderson, W. F. (1993). Sequences determining the pH dependence of viral entry are distinct from the host range-determining region of the murine ecotropic and amphotropic retrovirus envelope proteins. J Virol 67, 7402–7405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ott, D. and Rein, A. (1992). Basis for receptor specificity of nonecotropic murine leukemia virus surface glycoprotein gp70Su. J. Virol. 66, 4632–4638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Pinter, A., Chen, T. E., Lowy, A., Cortez, N. G. and Siligari, S. (1986). Ecotropic murine leukemia virus-induced fusion of murine cells. J. Virol. 57, 1048–1054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Roux, P., Jeanteur, P. and Piechaczyk, M. (1989). A versatile and potentially general approach to the targeting of specific cell types by retroviruses: Application to the infection of human cells by means of histocompatibility complex class I and class II antigens by ecotropic murine leukemia virus-derived viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 9079–9083.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Somia, N. V., Zoppé, M. and Verma, I M. (1995). Generation of targeted retroviral vectors by using single-chain variable fragment: An approach to in vivo gene delivery. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 7570–7574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Szurek, P. F., Yuen, P. H., Ball, J. K. and Wong, P. K. Y. (1990). A val-25-to-He substitution in the envelope precursor polyprotein gPr80env is responsible for the temperature sensitivity, inefficient processing of gPr80 and neurovirulence of tsl, a mutant of Moloney murine leukemia virus TB. J. Virol. 64, 467–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Tearina, T. H. and Dornburg, R. (1995). Retroviral vectors particles displaying the antigen-binding site of an anitbody enable cell-type gene transfer. J. Virol. 69, 2659–2663.Google Scholar
  32. Valsesia-Wittmann, S., Drynda, A., Deléage, G., Aumailley, M., Heard, J. M., Danos, O., Verdier, G. and Cosset, F. L. (1994). Modifications in the binding domain of avian retrovirus envelope protein to redirect the host range of retroviral vectors. J. Virol. 68, 4609–4619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang, H., Kavanaugh, M. P., North, R. A. and Kabat, D. (1991a). Cell-surface receptor for ecotropic murine retroviruses is a basic amino-acid transporter. Nature 352, 729–731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang, H., Paul, R., Burgeson, R E., Keene, D. R. and Kabat, D. (1991b). Plasma membrane receptors for ecotropic murine retroviruses require a limiting accessory factor. J. Virol. 65, 6468–6477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Weiss, R. A. (1993). Cellular receptors and viral glycoproteins involved in retrovirus entry. New York and London: Plenum Press, 1–108.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre Rodrigues
    • 1
  • Jean-Michel Heard
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire Rétrovirus et Transfert, GénétiqueInstitut PasteurParis cedex 15France

Personalised recommendations