Immunogenetic Basis of Organ Graft Rejection in Rat and Mouse

  • E. Günther

Abstract

Histoincompatibility becomes manifest in vivo by a host-versus-graft reaction or a graft-versus-host reaction. The phenomenon has a genetic basis and is determined by multiple, distinct genes, called histocompatibility (H) genes. The histoincompatibility reaction is immunological in nature and elicited by histocompatibility antigens, which are the products of histocompatibility genes and are expressed on the cell surface. Thus, histocompatibility antigens have been operationally defined as widely expressed molecules eliciting an immune response that leads to the rejection of the antigen-bearing tissue. This immune response is induced when the immune system is confronted with foreign epitopes on histocompatibility antigens. Thus, polymorphism of histocompatibility antigens and of the encoding genes is a prerequisite for inducing histoincompatibility reactions. Histocompatibility antigens belong to the group of alloantigens, i.e., antigenic molecules showing sequence variability in a species; the immune reaction to these antigens is called in general alloimmune response. A graft-versus-host reaction will ensue when the graft contains enough hematopoietic or lymphatic tissue to react immunologically against the recipient. This is the case with bone marrow grafts, but also with intestinal grafts.

Keywords

Leukemia Recombination Cyclosporine Hunt Haplo 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Arden B, Clark SP, Kabelitz D, Mak TW (1995) Mouse T-cell receptor variable gene segment families. Immunogenetics 42:501–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arnold D, Faath S, Rammensee H-G, Schild H (1995) Cross-priming of minor histocompatibility antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells upon immunization with heat shock protein gp96. J Exp Med 182:885–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Auchincloss H, Sultan H (1996) Antigen processing and presentation in transplantation. Curr Opin Immunol 8:681–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bender K, Adams M, Baverstock PR, den Biemann M, Bissbort S, Brdicka R, Butcher GW, Cramer DV, von Deimling O, Festing MFW, Günther E, Guttmann RD, Hedrich HJ, Kendall PB, Kluge R, Moutier R, Simon B, Womack JE, Yamada J, van Zutphen B (1984) Biochemical markers in inbred strains of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). Immunogenetics 19:257–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bender K, Balogh P, Bertrand FM, den Biemann M, von Deimling O, Eghtessadi S, Gutman GA, Hedrich HJ, Hunt SV, Kluge R, Matsumoto K, Moralejo DH, Nagel M, Portal A, Prokop C-M, Seibert RT, van Zutphen LFM (1994) Genetic characterization of inbred strains of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). J Exp Anim Sci 36:151–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benham AM, Fabre JW (1994) Fine specificity of peptide determinants for indirect cell recognition of class I MHC alloantigens. Transplantation 58:1236–1240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Benham AM, Sawyer GJ, Fabre JW (1995) Indirect T cell derecognition of donor antigens contributes to the rejection of vascularized kidney allografts. Transplantation 59:1028–1032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Benichou G, Fedoseyeva E, Lehmann PV, Olson CA, Geysen HM, McMillan M, Sercarz EE (1994) Limited T cell response to donor MHC peptides during allograft rejection. Implications for selective immune therapy in transplantation. J Immunol 153:938–945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bhuyan PK, Young LL, Fischer Lindahl K, Butcher GW (1997) Identification of the rat maternally transmitted minor histocompatibility antigen. J Immunol 158:3753–3760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bildsøe P, Sørensen SF, Pettirossi O, Simonsen M (1970) Heart and kidney transplantation from segregating hybrid to parental rats. Transplant Rev 3:36–45Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burdick JF, Clow LW (1986) Rejection of murine cardiac allografts. I. Relative roles of major and minor antigens. Transplantation 42:67–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Butcher GW (1987) A list of monoclonal antibodies specific for alloantigens of the rat. J Immunogenet 14:163–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Butcher GW, Corvalan JR, Licence DR, Howard JC (1982) Immune response genes controlling responsiveness to major transplantation antigens. Specific major histocompatibility complex-linked defect for antibody response to class I alloantigens. J Exp Med 155:303–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Butcher GW, Howard JC (1982) Genetic control of transplant rejection. Transplantation 34:161–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Campbell RD, Trowsdale J (1997) A map of the human major histocompatibility complex. Immunol Today 14:43Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Campos L, Naji A, Deli BC, Kern JH, Kim JI, Barker CF, Markmann JF (1995) Survival of MHC-deficient mouse heterotopic cardiac allografts. Transplantation 59:187–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Colombo M, Jaenisch R, Wettstein P (1987) Endogenous retroviruses lead to the expression of a histocompatibility antigen detectable by skin graft rejection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84:189–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cosgrove D, Gray D, Dierich A, Kaufmann J, Lemeur M, Benoist C, Mathis D (1991) Mice lacking MHC class II molecules. Cell 66:1057–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Counce S, Smith P, Barth R, Snell GD (1956) Strong and weak histocompatibility fine differences in mice and their role in the rejection of homografts of tumors and skin. Ann Surg 144:198–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cudkowicz G, Bennett M (1971) Peculiar immunobiology of bone marrow allografts. II. Rejection of parental grafts by resistant Fl hybrid mice. J Exp Med 134:1513–1528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Davis AP, Roopenian DC (1990) Complexity at the mouse minor histocompatiblilty locus H-4. Immunogenetics 31:7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Douillard P, Pannetier C, Josien R, Menoret S, Kourilsky P, Soulillou J-P, Cuturi M-C (1996) Donor-specific blood transfusion-induced tolerance in adult rats with a dominant TCR-Vβ rearrangement in heart allografts. J Immunol 157:1250–1260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fischer Lindahl K (1991) Minor histocompatibility antigens. TIG 7:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fischer Lindahl K (1997) On naming H2 haplotypes: functional significance of MHC class Ib alleles. Immunogenetics 46:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fischer Lindahl K, Byers DE, Dabhi VM, Hovitz R, Jones EP, Smith GP, Wang C-R, Xiao H, Yoshino M (1997) H2-M3, a full-service class Ib histocompatibility antigen. Annu Rev Immunol 15:851–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fischer Lindahl K, Wilson DB (1977) Histocompatibility antigen-activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes. II. Estimates of the frequency and specificity of precursors. J Exp Med 145:508–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gallico G, Butcher GW, Howard JC (1979) The role of subregions of the rat major histocompatibility complex in the rejection and passive enhancement of renal allografts. J Exp Med 149:244–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gill TJ III, Salgar SK, Yuan XJ, Kunz HW (1997) Current status of the genetic and physical maps of the major histocompatibility complex in the rat. Transplant Proc 29:1657–1659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goss JA, Alexander-Miller MA, Gorka J, Flye MW, Connolly JM, Hansen TH (1993) Specific prolongation of allograft survival by a T-cell-receptor-derived peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:9872–9876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goss JA, Pyo R, Flye MW, Connolly JM, Hansen TH (1993) Major histocompatibility complex-specific prolongation of murine skin and cardiac allograft survival after in vivo depletion of Vβ+ T Cells. J Exp Med 177:35–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Graff RJ (1978) Minor histocompatibility genes and their antigens. In: Morse HC III (ed) Origins of inbred mice. Academic, New York, pp 371–389Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Graff RJ, Brown DH (1978) Estimates of histocompatibility differences between inbred mouse strains. Immunogenetics 7:367–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Grusby MJ, Johnson RS, Papaioannou VE, Glimcher LH (1991) Depletion of CD4+ T cells in major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient mice. Science 253:1417–1420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grusby MJ, Auchincloss H jr, Lee R, Johnson RS, Spencer JP, Zijlstra M, Jaenisch R, Papaioannou VE, Glimcher LH (1993) Mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:3913–3917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Günther E (1985) Immunogenetic aspects of organ transplantation in the rat. In: Thiede A, Deltz E, Engemann R, Hamelmann H (eds) Microsurgical models in rats for transplantation research. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Günther E (1990) Immunological markers. In: Hedrich HJ (ed) (1990) Genetic monitoring of inbred strains of rats. Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 23–35Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Günther E (1996) Current status of the molecular genetic analysis of the rat major histocompatibility complex. Folia Biol 42:129–145Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Günther E, Stark O (1977) The major histocompatibility system of the rat (Ag-B or H-1 system). In: Götze D (ed) The major histocompatibility system in man and animals. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg NewYork, pp 207–253Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Günther E, Butcher G, Gill III TJ, Kunz HW, Natori T (1997) Report on rat chromosome 20. Rat Genome 3:97–107Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hamvas RMJ, Artzt K, Fischer-Lindahl K, Trachtulec Z, Vernet C, Forejt J (1997) Mouse chromosome 17. Mammalian Genome 7:S274–S294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hashimoto K, Hirai M, Kurosawa Y (1995) A gene outside the human MHC related to classical class I genes. Science 269:693–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hedrich HJ (ed) (1990) Genetic monitoring of inbred strains of rats. Fischer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hedrich HJ (1990) Catalogue of mutant genes and polymorphic loci. In: Hedrich HJ (ed) (1990) Genetic monitoring of inbred strains of rats. Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 286–409Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Heslop BF, Jolly KD (1979) Genetic control of haemagglutinin production against an MHC-determined alloantigen in rats. Immunogenetics 8:567–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Heslop BF, McNeilage LJ (1983) Natural cytotoxicity: early killing of allogeneic lymphocytes in rats. Immunol Rev 73:35–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Howard JC, Butcher GW (1981) The mechanism of graft rejection and the concept of antigenic strength. Scand J Immunol 14:687–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ichimiya S, Kikuchi K, Matsuura A (1994) Structural analysis of the rat homologue of CD1. Evidence for evolutionary conservation of the CDID class and widespread transcription by rat cells. J Immunol 153:1112–1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Joly E, Deverson EV, Coadwell JW, Günther E, Howard JC, Butcher GW (1994) The distribution of Tap2 alleles among laboratory rat RT1 haplotypes. Immunogenetics 40:45–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Joly E, Leong L, Coadwell WJ, Clarkson C, Butcher GW (1996) The rat MHC haplotype RT1c expresses two classical class I molecules. J Immunol 157:1551–1558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kamada N, Davies HffS, Wight D, Culank L, Roser B (1983) Liver transplantation in the rat. Biochemical and histological evidence of complete tolerance induction in non-rejector strains. Transplantation 35:304–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Katz SM, Liebert M, Gill TJ III, Kunz HW, Cramer DV, Guttmann RD (1983) The relative roles of MHC and non-MHC genes in heart and skin allograft survival. Transplantation 36:96–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Klein J, Figueroa F, David CS (1983) H-2 haplotypes, genes and antigens: second listing. II. The H-2 complex. Immunogenetics 17:553–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Klempnauer J, Wonigeit K, Günther E, Pichlmayr R (1983) Pancreas whole organ transplantation in the rat. Evidence for a strong effect of non-MHC incompatibilities. Transplant Proc 15:1649–1651Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Klempnauer J, Wonigeit K, Steiniger B, Günther E, Pichlmayr R (1983) Pancreas whole organ transplantation in the rat. Differential effect of individual MHC regions. Tranplant Proc 15:1308–1310Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Klempnauer J, Wonigeit K, Steiniger B (1985) Transplantation effects of the RT1.C region in rat heart and pancreas grafting. Transplant Proc 17:1893–1896Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Klempnauer J, Steiniger B, Marquarding E, Vogt P, Lipecz A, Wonigeit K, Günther E (1987) Effects of the RT1.C region in rat allotransplantation. Transplant Proc 19:713–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Klempnauer J, Steiniger B, Lück R, Günther E (1989) Genetic control of the rat heart allograft rejection: effect of different MHC and non-MHC incompatibilities. Immunogenetics 30:81–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kohoutová M, Stark O (1981) A new congenic strain LEW.C4H with a weak H-locus. Transplant Proc 13:1319–1321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Koller BH, Smithies O (1989) Inactivating the β2-microglobulin locus in mouse embryonic stem cells by homologous recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:8932–8935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kren V, Bílá V, Krsiaková M, Krenová D (1978) Alleles of the H-5 locus linked to lx locus in different rat strains. Folia Biol 24:376–377Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Krsiaková M, Panczak A, Schlegerová D, Stejskal J, Krenová D, Kren V (1990) Lewis kidney grafts in RT4- and/or RT6-incompatible recipients. Transplant Proc 22:2545–2546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kropshofer H, Hämmerling GJ, Vogt AB (1997) How HLA-DM edits the MHC class II peptide repertoire: survival of the fittest? Immunol Today 18:77–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lambracht D, Prokop C, Hedrich HJ, Fischer Lindahl K, Wonigeit K (1995) Mapping of H2-M homolog and MOG genes in the rat MHC. Immunogenetics 42:418–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lechler RI, Batchelor JR (1982) Restoration of immunogenicity to passenger cell-depleted kidney allografts by the addition of donor strain dendritic cells. J Exp Med 155:31–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Liu Z, Sun Y-K, Xi Y-P, Maffei A, Reed E, Harris P, Suciu-Foca N (1993) Contribution of direct and indirect recognition pathways to T cell alloreactivity. J Exp Med 177: 1643–1650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Livingstone AN, Powis SJ, Diamond AG, Butcher GW, Howard JC (1989) A trans-acting major histocompatibility complex-linked gene whose alleles determine gain and loss changes in the antigenic structure of a classical class I molecule. J Exp Med 170:777–795PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lurquin C, Van Pel A, Mariamé B, De Plaen E, Szikora J-P, Janssens C, Reddehase MJ, Lejeune J, Boon T (1989) Structure of the gene of Turn’ transplantation antigen P91 A: the mutated exon encodes a peptide recognized with Ld by cytolytic T cells. Cell 58:293–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lyon MF, Rastan S, Brown SDM (eds) (1996) Genetic variants and strains of the laboratory mouse, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Marshak A, Doherty PC, Wilson DB (1997) The control of specificity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes by the major histocompatibility complex (Ag-B) in rats and identification of a new alloantigen system showing no Ag-B restriction. J Exp Med 146:1773–1790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Matsuura A, Takayama S, Kinebuchi M, Hashimoto Y, Kasai K, Kozutsumi D, Ichimiya S, Honda R, Natori T, Kikuchi K (1997) RT1.P, rat class Ib genes related to mouse TL: evidence that CD1 molecules but not authentic TL antigens are expressed by rat thymus. Immunogenetics 46:293–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Matzinger P, Bevan MJ (1977) Why do so many lymphocytes respond to major histocompatibility antigens? Cell Immunol 29:1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Melián A, Beckmann EM, Procelli SA, Brenner MB (1996) Antigen presentation by CD1 and MHC-encoded class I-like molecules. Curr Opin Immunol 8:82–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mullen Y, Hildemann WH (1972) X- and Y-linked transplantation antigens in rats. Transplantation 13:521–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Paris A, Günther E (1980) Kidney grafting between rats which carry recombinant major histocompatibility haplotypes. Immunogenetics 10:205–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Paris AMI, Bishop C, Festenstein H, Günther E (1978) Non-major histocompatibility system immunogenetic influences in rat renal allograft survival. Transplantation 25:252–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Paul LC, Busch GJ, Paradysz JM, Carpenter CB (1983) Definition, genetics and possible significance of a newly defined endothelial antigen in the rat. Transplantation 36:533–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Peugh WN, Superina RA, Wood KJ, Morris PJ (1986) The role of H-2 and non-H-2 antigens and genes in the rejection of murine cardiac allografts. Immunogenetics 23:30–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Qian S, Demetris AJ, Murase N, Rao AS, Fung JJ, Starzl TE (1994) Murine liver allograft transplantation: tolerance and donor cell chimerism. Hepatology 19:916–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rammensee H-G, Bachmann J, Stefanovic S (1997) MHC ligands and peptide motifs. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, Landes Bioscience, Austin, Tex.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Raulet DH, Held, W, Correa I, Dorfmann JR, Wu M-F, Corral L (1997) Specificity, tolerance and developmental regulation of natural killer cells defined by expression of class I-specific Ly49 receptors. Immunol Rev 155:41–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rees D, Nesbitt MN, Goldberg EH (1994) Skn 2 is linked to Myb on chromosome 10 of the mouse. Immunogenetics 39:363–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rolstad B, Ford WL (1983) The rapid elimination of allogeneic lymphocytes: relationship to established mechanisms of immunity and to lymphocytic traffic. Immunol Rev 73:87–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rolstad B, Wonigeit K, Vaage JT (1993) Alloreactive rat natural killer (NK) cells in vivo and in vitro: the role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In: Rolstad B (ed) Natural immunity to normal hemopoietic cells. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rolstad B, Vaage JT, Naper C, Lambracht D, Wonigeit K, Joly E, Butcher GW (1997) Positive and negative MHC class I recogniton by rat NK cells. Immunol Rev 155:91–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Roopenian DC (1992) What are minor histocompatibility loci? A new look at an old question. Immunol Today 13:7–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Roopenian DC, Davis AP, Christianson GJ, Mobraaten LE (1993) The functional basis of minor histocompatibility loci. J Immunol 151:4595–4605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rötzschke O, Falk K, Wallny H-J, Faath S, Rammensee H-G (1990) Characterization of naturally occurring minor histocompatibility peptides including H-4 and H-Y. Science 249:283–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sadasivan B, Lehner PJ, Ortmann B, Spies T, Cresswell P (1996) Roles for calreticulin and a novel glycoprotein, tapasin, in the interaction of MHC class I molecules with TAP. Immunity 5:103–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Salaman JR (1971) Prolonged survival of renal allografts in rats mismatched at the major histocompatibility locus. Transplantation 11:63–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Salgar SK, Yuan X, Kunz HW, Gill TJ III (1997) Physical mapping and structural analysis of new gene families RT1.S and Rps2r in the grc region of the rat major histocompatibility complex. Immunogenetics 45:353–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Shirwan H, Chi D, Makowka L, Cramer DV (1993) Lymphocytes infiltrating rat cardiac allografts express a limited repertoire of T cell receptor Vβ genes. J Immunol 151:5228–5238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shirwan H, Ohanjanian M, Burcham G, Makowka L, Cramer DV (1993) Structure and diversity of rat T cell receptor α-chain genes. J Immunol 150:2295–2304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shirwan H, Barwari L, Fuss I, Makowka L, Cramer DV (1995) Structure and repertoire usage of rat TCR a-chain genes in T cells infiltrating heart allografts. J Immunol 154:1964–1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shirwan H, Cajulis E, Makowka L, Cramer DV (1995) Differential usage of the T cell receptor repertoire for allorecognition of heart, liver, and kidney grafts. Transplantation 59:1709–1714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Silver LM (1995) Mouse genetics. Concepts and applications. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Simpson E, Scott D, Chandler P (1997) The male-specific histocompatibility antigen, H-Y: a history of transplantation, immune response genes, sex determination and expression cloning. Annu Rev Immunol 15:39–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Smith LR, Kono DH, Theofilopoulos AN (1991) Complexity and sequence identification of 24 rat Vβ genes. J Immunol 147:375–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Snell GD (1948) Methods for the study of histocompatibility genes. J Genet 49:87–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Soulillou JP, Blandin F, Günther E, Lemoine V (1984) Genetics of the blood transfusion effect on heart allografts in rats. Transplantation 38:63–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Speiser DE, Zürcher T, Ramseier H, Hengartner H, Staeheli P, Haller O, Zinkernagel RM (1990) Nuclear myxovirus-resistance protein Mx is a minor histocompatibility antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87:2021–2025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Steinmuller D, Tyler JD (1983) Cross-priming reveals similar tissue-restricted CTL defined alloantigens on mouse, rat and human epidermal cells. Transplant Proc 15:238–241Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Steinmuller D, Wakely E, Landas SK (1991) Evidence that epidermal alloantigen EPA-1 is an immunogen for murine heart as well as skin allograft rejection. Transplantation 51:459–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Stepkowski SM, Ito T (1990) Frequency of alloantigen-specific T cytotoxic cells in high-and low-responder recipients of class I MHC-disparate heart allografts. Transplantation 50:112–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Stepkowski SM, Raza-Ahmad A, Duncan WR (1987) The role of class I and class II MHC antigens in the rejection of vascularized heart allografts in mice. Transplantation 44:753–759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Stewart R, Butcher G, Herbert J, Roser B (1985) Graft rejection in a congenic panel of rats with defined immune response genes for MHC class I antigen. Transplantation 40:427–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Szikora J-P, Van Pel A, Brichard V, André M, Van Baren N, Pascal H, De Plaen E, Boon T (1990) Structure of the gene of turn’ transplantation antigen P35B: presence of a point mutation in the antigenic allele. EMBO J 9:1041–1050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Terness P, Dufter C, Otto G, Opelz G (1996) Allograft survival following immunization with membrane-bound or soluble peptide MHC class I donor antigens: factors relevant for the induction of rejection by indirect recognition. Transplant Int 9:2–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Thoenes GH, Urban G, Doering I (1974) Kidney transplantation between congenic versus standard inbred strains of rats: I. The significance of H-1 and non-H-1 gene differences. Immunogenetics 3:239–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Torres-Nagel NE, Herrmann T, Hünig T (1998) The rat T-cell receptor. Handbook of vertebrate immunology, (in press)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Trowsdale J (1995) “Both man & bird & beast”: comparative organization of MHC genes. Immunogenetics 41:1–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Tweedle JR, Middleton SE, Marshall HE, Bradley JA, Bolton AM (1996) Alloantibody and intragraft cellular response to MHC class I-disparate kidney allografts in recipients tolerized by donor-specific transfusion and cyclosporine. Transplantation 62:23–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Vogt P, Lipecz A, Wonigeit K, Pichlmayr R (1987) Differential modification of donor-specific immune reactivity by longstanding heart and kidney allografts transplanted across defined class I MHC barriers in the rat. Transplant Proc 19:4203–4206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Vogt P, Hiller W, Klempnauer (1990) Immunogenetic analysis of rat kidney rejection. Tranplant Proc 22:2522–2523Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wang M, Stepkowski SM, Tian L, Langowski JL, Yu J, Kahan BD (1996) Nucleotide sequences of three distinct clones coding for rat heavy chain class I major histocompatibility antigens. Immunogenetics 43:318–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Wang C, Sun J, Wang L, Li L, Horvat M, Sheil R (1997) Combined liver and pancreas transplantation induces pancreas allograft tolerance. Transplant Proc 29:1145–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wettstein PJ, Colombo MP (1987) Immunodominance in the T cell response to multiple non-H-2 histocompatibility antigens. IV. Partial tissue distribution and mapping of immunodominant antigens. J Immunol 139:2166–2171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Wettstein PJ, Jewett L, Faas S, Brinster RL, Knowles BB (1988) SV40 T-antigen is a histocompatibility antigen of SV40-transgenic mice. Immunogenetics 27:436–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wettstein PJ, Van Bleek GM, Nathenson SG (1993) Differential binding of a minor histocompatibility antigen peptide to H-2 class I molecules correlates with immune responsiveness. J Immunol 150:2753–2760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    White E, Hildemann WH, Mullen Y (1969) Chronic kidney allograft reactions in rats. Transplantation 8:602–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Wonigeit K, Hansen L (1991) Two new class I loci in the rat major histocompatibility complex: RT1.L and RT1.M. Transplant Proc 23:468–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Yamamoto S, Ito T, Nakata S, Nozaki S, Uchikoshi F, Shirakura R, Kamiike W, Miyata M, Matsuda H (1994) The rejection mechanism of rat pancreaticoduodenal allografts with a class I MHC disparity. Transplantation 57:1217–1222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Zhang Z, Zhu L, Quan D, Garcia B, Ozcay N, Duff J, Stiller C, Lazarovits A, Grant D, Zhong R (1996) Pattern of liver, kidney, heart and intestine allograft rejection in different mouse strain combinations. Transplantation 62:1267–1272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Zijlstra M, Auchincloss H jr, Loring JM, Chase CM, Russell PS, Jaenisch R (1992) Skin graft rejection by β2-microglobulin-deficient mice. J Exp Med 175:885–893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Zimmermann FA, Davies HffS, Knoll PP, Gokel JM, Schmidt T (1984) Orthotopic liver allografts in the rat. The influence of strain combination on the fate of the graft. Transplantation 137:406–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Günther

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations