Advantages Afforded by Miniaturization and Integration of DNA Analysis Instrumentation

  • M. Allen Northrup
  • Bill Benett
  • Dean Hadley
  • Paul Stratton
  • Phoebe Landre
Conference paper


Miniaturization of chemical reaction chambers, along with the integration with low-cost detection components for real-time product quantification allows for significant improvements in instrumentation. Bulk chemical reactions can benefit from increased control at the microscopic level, according to the general volumetric reaction formula:
$$ Q\, = \,1/U\int_{qr} {dU} $$
where, Q is the volumetric reaction rate (moles/time · volume), U is the volume, and qris the “point” reaction rate at a “microscopic” volume unit. This equation is only valid if everything is uniform at a microscopic scale, that is, the reaction is working equally at all points. This uniformity is difficult to maintain, especially in reactions that have: 1) multiple co-reactants, 2) narrow and uniform condition (i.e., (temperature and pH) requirements, 3) macromolecular biological components, such as enzymes, and 4) diffusion limiting conditions. Typically, bulk bioreactors require significant effort to maintain such uniformity and often are difficult to scale up as a result. Arrays of miniaturized reactors with individual control can replace the less effective bulk systems, provide better uniformity, and therefore increase productivity.


Reaction Chamber Pulse Width Modulation Reaction Fluid Taqman Assay Dimethyl Silane 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Allen Northrup
    • 1
  • Bill Benett
    • 1
  • Dean Hadley
    • 1
  • Paul Stratton
    • 1
  • Phoebe Landre
    • 1
  1. 1.Lawrance Livermore National LaboratoryMicrotechnology CenterLivemoreUSA

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