Advertisement

Molecular Markers

  • Germán Spangenberg
  • Zeng-Yu Wang
  • Ingo Potrykus
Part of the Monographs on Theoretical and Applied Genetics book series (GENETICS, volume 23)

Abstract

The development of molecular markers is based on naturally occurring polymorphism which has been shown to be widespread in natural populations and to differ markedly in different species (Evola et al. 1986; Burr 1994). Polymorphism can be revealed at different levels depending on the detection method used.

Keywords

Tall Fescue Perennial Ryegrass Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Marker Italian Ryegrass Kentucky Bluegrass 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arcioni S, Mariotti D (1983) Selfing and interspecific hybridization in Lolium perenne L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam. evaluated by phosphoglucoisomerase as isozyme marker. Euphytica 32: 33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balfourier F, Charmet G (1994) Geographical patterns of isozyme variation in Mediterranean populations of perennial ryegrass. Heredity 72: 55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balfourier F, Charmet G, Grand-Ravel C (1994) Conservation of allelic multiplicity and genotypic frequency by pooling wild populations of perennial ryegrass. Heredity 73: 386–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baird E, Cooper-Bland S, Waugh R, DeMaine M, Powell W (1992) Molecular characterisation of inter- and intra-specific somatic hybrids of potato using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Mol Gen Genet 233: 469–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barcaccia G, Mazzucato A, Belardinelli A, Pezzotti M, Lucretti S, Falcinelli M (1997) Inheritance of parental genomes in progenies of Poa pratensis L. from sexual and apomictic genotypes as assessed by RAPD markers and flow cytometry. Theor Appl Genet 95: 516–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beckmann JS, Soller M (1986) Restriction fragment length polymorphism and genetic improvement of agricultural species. Euphytica 35: 111–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown AHD (1978) Isozymes, plant population genetic structure and genetic conservation. Theor Appl Genet 52: 145–157Google Scholar
  8. Burr B (1994) Some concepts and new methods for molecular mapping in plants. In: Phillips RL, Vasil IK (eds) DNA-based markers in plants. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caetano-Anollés G, Callahan LM, Williams PE, Weaver KR, Gresshoff PM (1995) DNA amplification fingerprinting analysis of bermudagrass (Cynodon): genetic relationships between species and interspecific crosses. Theor Appl Genet 91: 228–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Charmet G, Balfourier F (1994a) Isozyme variation and species relationships in the genus Lolium L. (ryegrasses, Graminaceae). Theor Appl Genet 87: 641–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Charmet G, Balfourier F (1994b) Influence of ecological factors on population differentiation in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Genet Resourc Crop Evol 41: 175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Charmet G, Balfourier F, Ravel C (1993) Isozyme polymorphism and geographic differentiation in a collection of French perennial ryegrass populations. Genet Resourc Crop Evol 40: 77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Charmet G, Ravel C, Balfourier F (1997) Phylogenetic analysis in the Festuca-Lolium complex using molecular markers and ITS rDNA. Theor Appl Genet 94: 1038–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen C, Sleper DA, Chao S, Johal GS, West CP (1997) RFLP detection of 2n pollen formation by first and second division restitution in perennial ryegrass. Crop Sci 37: 76–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dahleen LS, Eizenga GC (1990) Meiotic and isozymic characterization of plants regenerated from euploid and selfed monosomic tall fescue embryos. Theor Appl Genet 79: 39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Loose M, Vauterin L, Reuheul D, Van Bockstaele E (1993) Identification of ryegrass varieties using RAPD markers. Med Fac Landbow Univ Gent 58/4b: 2119–2121Google Scholar
  17. Eizenga GC (1987) Cytogenetic and isozymic characterization of anther panicle culture derived tall fescue aneuploids. Euphytica 36: 175–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eizenga GC, Cornelius PL (1991) Comparison of the isozyme variation in tall fescue parents and their somaclones. Euphytica 51: 249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Evola SV, Burr FA, Burr B (1986) The suitability of restriction fragment length polymorphisms as genetic markers in maize. Theor Appl Genet 71: 765–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garcia A, Dalton SJ, Humphreys MO (1994) Reproductive disturbances and phosphoglu-coisomerase instability in Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) plants regenerated from callus and cell suspension cultures. Heredity 73: 355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gilliland TJ, Camlin MS, Wright CE (1982) Evaluation of phosphoglucoisomerase allozyme electrophoresis for the identification and registration of cultivars of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Seed Sci Technol 10: 415–430Google Scholar
  22. Greneche M, Lallemand J, Michaud O (1991) Comparison of different enzyme loci as a means of distinguishing ryegrass varieties by electrophoresis. Seed Sci Technol 19: 147–158Google Scholar
  23. Hayward MD, McAdam NJ (1977) Isozyme as a measure of distinctiveness and stability in cultivars of Lolium perenne. Z Pflanzenziichtg 79: 59–68Google Scholar
  24. Hayward MD, McAdam NJ (1988) The effect of isozyme selection on yield and flowering time in Lolium perenne. Plant Breed 101: 24–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hayward MD, Olesen A, Due IK, Jenkins R, Morris P (1990) Segregation of isozyme marker loci amongst androgenetic plants of Lolium perenne L. Plant Breed 104: 68–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hayward MD, McAdam NJ, Jones JG, Evans C, Evans GM, Forster JW, Ustin A, Hossain KG, Quader B, Stammers M, Will JK (1994) Genetic markers and the selection of quatitative traits in forage grass. Euphytica 77: 269–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Helentjaris TG (1992) RFLP analysis for manipulating agronomic traits in plants. In: Stalker HT, Murphy JP (eds) Plant breeding in the 1990s. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 357–387Google Scholar
  28. Hicks PH, Sleper DA, Randall DD, Crane CF (1982) Peroxidase isozyme differences in tall fescue cultivars and allopolyploid accessions. Euphytica 31: 175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ho CY, McMaugh SJ, Wilton AN, McFarlane IJ, Mackinlay AG (1997) DNA amplification variation within cultivars of turf-type Couch grasses (Cynodon spp.). Plant Cell Rep 16: 797–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Huff DR, Bara JM (1993) Determining genetic origins of aberrant progeny from facultative apomictic Kentucky bluegrass using a combination of flow cytometry and silver-stained RAPD markers. Theor Appl Genet 87: 201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huff DR, Peakall R, Smouse PE (1993) RAPD variation within and among natural populations of outcrossing buffalograss [Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.]. Theor Appl Genet 86: 927–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Huff DR (1997) RAPD characterization of heterogeneous perennial ryegrass cultivars. Crop Sci 37: 557–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Humphreys MW (1989) The controlled introgression of Festuca arundinacea genes into Lolium multiflorummultiflorum. Euphytica 42: 105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Humphreys MO (1992) Association of agronomic traits with isozyme loci in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Euphytica 59: 141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Humphreys MW, Dalton SJ (1991) Stability at the phosphogluco-isomerase (PGI/2) locus in Festuca arundinacea plants regenerated from cell suspension and protoplast culture. Genome 34: 59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Humphreys MW, Dalton SJ (1992) Stability at the phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI/2) locus in Lolium multiflorum (2n = 4x = 28) × Festuca arundinacea (2n = 6x = 42) plants regenerated from cell suspension. Genome 35: 461–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kiang AS, Connolly V, McConnell DJ, Kavanagh TA (1993) Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Lolium perenne L.: 1. Development of a diagnostic probe for the male-sterile cytoplasm. Theor Appl Genet 86: 781–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lallemand J, Michaud O, Greneche M (1991) Electrophoretical description of ryegrass varieties: a catalogue. Plant Variet Seeds 4: 11–16Google Scholar
  39. Liu CJ, Witcombe JR, Pittaway TS, Nash M, Hash CT, Busso CS, Gale MD (1994) An RFLP-based genetic map of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Theor Appl Genet 89: 481–487Google Scholar
  40. Livesey V, Norrington-Davies J (1991) Isozyme polymorphism in Festuca rubra L. Euphytica 55: 73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mazzucato A, Barcaccia G, Pezzotti M, Falcinelli M (1995) Biochemical and molecular markers for investigating the mode of reproduction in the facultative apomict Poa pratensis L. Sex Plant Reprod 8: 133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McMillin DE (1983) Plant isozymes: a historical perspective. In: Tanksley SD, Orton TJ (eds) Isozymes in plant genetics and breeding, part A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 3–13Google Scholar
  43. Moore GA, Collins GB (1983) New challenges confronting plant breeders. In: Tanksley SD, Orton TJ (eds) Isozymes in plant genetics and breeding, part A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 25–58Google Scholar
  44. Nielsen G (1980) Identification of all genotypes in tetraploid ryegrass (Lolium spp.) segregating for four alleles in a Pgi-enzyme locus. Hereditas 92: 49–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nielsen G (1985) The use of isozymes as probes to identify and label plant varieties and cultivars. In: Rarrazzi MC, Scandalios JG, Whitt GS (eds) Isozymes: current topics in biological and medical research. Liss, New York, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  46. Nielsen G, Østergaard H, Johansen H (1985) Cultivar identification by means of isoenzymes II. Genetic variation at four enzyme loci in diploid ryegrass. Z Pflanzenzüchtg 94: 74–86Google Scholar
  47. Østergaard H, Nielsen G (1981) Cultivar identification by means of isoenzymes. I-Genotypic survey of the Pgi-2 locus in tetraploid ryegrass. Z Pflanzenziichtg 87: 121–132Google Scholar
  48. Østergaard H, Nielsen G, Johansen H (1985) Genetic variation in cultivars of diploid ryegrass, Lolium perenne and L. multiflorum, at five enzyme systems. Theor Appl Genet 69: 409–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ozias-Akins P, Lubbers EL, Hanna WW, McNay JW (1993) Transmission of the apomictic mode of reproduction in Pennisetum co-inheritance of the trait and molecular markers. Theor Appl Genet 85: 632–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pérez-Vicente R, Petris L, Osusky M, Potrykus I, Spangenberg G (1992) Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of repetitive DNA sequences from Lolium and Festuca applications in the analysis of Festulolium hybrids. Theor Appl Genet 84: 145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Polans NO, Allard RW (1985) Inheritance of electrophoretically detectable variants in ryegrass. J Heredity 76: 61–62Google Scholar
  52. Rafalski JA, Tingey SV (1993) Genetic diagnostics in plant breeding: RAPDs, microsatellites and machines. Trends Genet 9: 275–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rafalski A, Tingey S, Williams JGK (1994) Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In: Gelvin SB, Schilperoort RA (eds) Plant Mol Biol Manu. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp H4: 1–8Google Scholar
  54. Rothe G (1994) Electrophoresis of enzymes: laboratory methods. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rouwendal GJA, Creemers-Molenaar J, Krens FA (1992) Molecular aspects of cytoplasmic male sterility in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.): mtDNA and RNA differences between plants with male-sterile and fertile cytoplasm and restriction mapping of their atp6 and cox1 homologous regions. Theor Appl Genet 83: 330–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Shenoy VB, Vasil IK (1992) Biochemical and molecular analysis of plants derived from embryogenic tissue cultures of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum K. Schum.). Theor Appl Genet 83: 947–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Spangenberg G, Vallés MP, Wang ZY, Montavon P, Nagel J, Potrykus I (1994) Asymmetric somatic hybridization between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and irradiated Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) protoplasts. Theor Appl Genet 88: 509–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Spangenberg G, Wang ZY, Legris G, Montavon P, Takamizo T, Pérez-Vicente R, Vallés MP, Nagel J, Potrykus I (1995) Intergeneric symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybridization in Festuca and Lolium. Euphytica 85: 235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Spoor W, Hay JM (1979) Identification of Poa pratensis lines using electrophoresis of seed extracts. Seed Sci Technol 7: 467–474Google Scholar
  60. Stammers M, Harris J, Evans GM, Hayward MD, Forster JW (1995) Use of random PCR (RAPD) technology to analyse phylogenetic relationships in the Lolium/Festuca complex. Heredity 74: 19–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Takamizo T, Spangenberg G, Suginobu K, Potrykus I (1991) Intergeneric somatic hybridization in Gramineae: somatic hybrid plants between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Mol Gen Genet 231: 1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tanksley SD, Young ND, Paterson AH, Bonierbale MW (1989) RFLP mapping in plant breeding: new tools for an old science. Bio/Technology 7: 257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Thomas HM, Morgan WG, Meredith MR, Humphreys MW, Thomas H, Leggett JM (1994) Identification of parental and recombined chromosomes in hybrid derivatives of Lolium multiflorum × Festuca pratensis by genomic in situ hybridization. Theor Appl Genet 88: 909–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Thomas HM, Harper JA, Meredith MR, Morgan WG, King IP (1997) Physical mapping of ribosomal DNA sites in Festuca arundinacea and related species by in situ hybridization. Genome 40: 406–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Vallés MP, Wang ZY, Montavon P, Potrykus I, Spangenberg G (1993) Analysis of genetic stability of plants regenerated from suspension cultures and protoplasts of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.). Plant Cell Rep 12: 101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wang ZY, Nagel J, Potrykus I, Spangenberg G (1993b) Plants from cell suspension-derived protoplasts in Lolium species. Plant Sci 94:179–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Waugh R, Powell W (1992) Using RAPD markers for crop improvement. TIBTECH 10: 186–191Google Scholar
  68. Weaver KR, Callahan LM, Caetano-Anollés G, Gresshoff PM (1995) DNA amplification fingerprinting and hybridization analysis of centipedegrass. Crop Sci 35: 881–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Weeden NF, Emmo AC (1985) Isozyme characterization of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars. Can J Plant Sci 65: 985–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wehner DJ, Duich JM, Watschke TL (1976) Separation of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars using peroxidase isoenzyme banding patterns. Crop Sci 16: 475–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Welsh J, McClelland M (1990) Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers. Nucleic Acid Res 18: 7213–7218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Williams JGK, Kubelik AR, Livak KJ, Rafalski JA, Tingey SV (1990) DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acid Res 18: 6531–6535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wu L, Jampates R (1986) Chromosome number and isoenzyme variation in Kentucky bluegrass cultivars and plants regenerated from tissue culture. Cytologia 51: 125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wu L, Harivandi AH, Harding JA, Davis WB (1984) Identification of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars with esterase and phosphoglucomutase isoenzyme markers. Crop Sci 24: 763–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Xu WW, Sleper DA (1991) A survey of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in tall fescue and its relatives. Genome 34: 686–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Xu WW, Sleper DA (1994) Phylogeny of tall fescue and related species using RFLPs. Theor Appl Genet 88: 685–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Xu WW, Sleper DA, Chao S (1992) Detection of RFLP in perennial ryegrass, using heterologous probes from tall fescue. Crop Sci 32: 1366–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Xu WW, Sleper DA, Krause GF (1994) Genetic diversity of tall fescue germplasm based on RFLPs. Crop Sci 34: 246–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Yamamoto I, Duich JM (1994) Electrophoretic identification of cross-pollinated bentgrass species and cultivars. Crop Sci 34: 792–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Germán Spangenberg
    • 1
  • Zeng-Yu Wang
    • 1
  • Ingo Potrykus
    • 2
  1. 1.Plant Sciences and Biotechnology, Agriculture Victoria, Department of Natural Resources and Environment and CRC for Molecular Plant BreedingLa Trobe UniversityBundooraAustralia
  2. 2.Institute of Plant SciencesSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations