Hot-Filament Deposition of Diamond

  • Claus-Peter Klages
  • Lothar Schäfer
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Processing book series (SSMATERIALSPROC)


The historical development of diamond growth under conditions of its thermodynamical metastability can be traced back to the early 1950s, when Eversole at the laboratories of Union Carbide achieved the first overgrowth of diamond from the gas phase on the surface of diamond powder particles, probably before the first successful high-pressure/high-temperature synthesis of diamond. However, the method used at that time was far from being economically viable, owing to a very low yield and the necessity for repeated removal of simultaneously deposited graphite by a treatment in a pure hydrogen atmosphere. A very important breakthrough in the efforts to grow diamond by a chemical vapour deposition process was the finding that this carbon phase can be deposited continuously and largely free from graphite in the presence of a superequilibrium concentration of atomic hydrogen. A comprehensive account of this development, with particular consideration of the contributions by Russian scientists and many references to the original literature, was published recently [5.1].


Filament Material Diamond Film Filament Temperature Diamond Growth Negative Substrate Bias 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 5.1
    R.C. DeVries, A. Badzian, and R. Roy, RS Bull. Feb. 96, 65 (1996)Google Scholar
  2. 5.2
    S. Matsumoto, Y. Sato, M. Kamo, and N. Setaka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, L183 (1982)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 5.3
    S. Matsumoto, Y. Sato, M. Tsutsumi, and N. Setaka, J. Mater. Sci. 17, 3106 (1982)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 5.4
    S. Zhou, Z. Zhihao, X. Ning, and Z. Xiaofeng, Mat. Sci. Eng. B 25, 47 (1994)Google Scholar
  5. 5.5
    J. Brückner and T. Mäntylä, Diamond Rel. Mater. 2, 373 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.6
    D.M. Li, T. Mäntylä, R. Hernberg, and J. Levoska, Diamond Rel. Mater. 5, 350 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 5.7
    Y. Hirose and Y. Terasawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L519 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 5.8
    M. Murakawa, S. Takeuchi, H. Miyazawa, and Y. Hirose, Surf. Coat. Technol. 36, 303 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 5.9
    T. Kawato and K. Kondo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1429 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 5.10
    Y. Saito, K. Sato, H. Tanaka, K. Fujita, and S. Matsuda, J. Mater. Sci. 23, 842 (1988)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 5.11
    C. Chen, Y.C. Huang, S. Hosomi, and I. Yoshida, Mat. Res. Bull. 24, 87 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 5.12
    J.A. Mucha, D.L. Flamm, and D.E. Ibbotson, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3448 (1989)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 5.13
    S.J. Harris and A.M. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2179 (1989)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 5.14
    D.N. Belton and S.J. Schmieg, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3032 (1991)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 5.15
    P.K. Bachmann, D. Leers and H. Lydtin, Diamond Rel. Mat. 1, 1 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 5.16
    G.Z. Cao, J.J. Schermer, W.J.P. van Enckevort, W.A.L.M. Elst, and L.J. Giling, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1357 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 5.17
    SE 8 403 428–9, 27.06.84Google Scholar
  18. 5.18
    S. Okoli, R. Haubner, and B. Lux, J. Phys. IV 1, 923 (1991)Google Scholar
  19. 5.19
    H. Matsubara and T. Sakuma, J. Mater. Sci. 25, 4472 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 5.20
    M. Sommer and F.W. Smith, J. Mater. Res. 5, 2433 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 5.21
    B. Singh, Y. Arie, A.W. Levine, and O.R. Mesker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 451 (1988)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 5.22
    S. Okoli, R. Haubner, and B. Lux, J. Phys. IV, Colloque C2 (1991), C2–923Google Scholar
  23. 5.23
    L. Schäfer, U. Bringmann, C.-P. Klages, U. Meier and K. Kohse-Höinghaus, in Diamond and Diamond-Like Films and Coatings, ed. R.E. Clausing et al., Plenum Press, New York (1991), p.†643Google Scholar
  24. 5.24
    K.M. McNamara and K.K. Gleason, J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, L22 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 5.25
    A.M. Bonnot, Phys. Rev. B 41, 6040 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 5.26
    C.P. Beetz, Jr. and T.A. Perry, private communicationGoogle Scholar
  27. 5.27
    A. Venter and J.H. Neethling, Diamond Rel. Mater. 3, 168 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 5.28
    R.W. Collins, Y. Cong, H.V. Nguyen, I. An, K. Vedam, and T. Badzian, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5287 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 5.29
    F. Jansen, M.A. Machonkin, and D.E. Kuhman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A8, 3785 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 5.30
    C.-F. Chen, T.-M. Hong, and T.C. Wang, Scripta Metall. Mater. 31, 413 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 5.31
    M. Griesser, G. Stingeder, M. Grasserbauer, H. Baumann, F. Link, P. Wurzinger, H. Lux, R. Haubner, and B. Lux, Diamond Rel. Mater. 3, 638 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 5.32
    D. Li, M. Griesser, R. Hernberg, T. Mäntylä, and M. Grasserbauer, presented at Diamond Films ‘96, Tours, France, September 8–13, 1996Google Scholar
  33. 5.33
    E. Gheeraert, A. Deneuville, M. Brunei, and J.C. Oberlin, Diamond Rel. Mater. 1, 504 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 5.34
    H.-J. Hinneberg, M. Eck, and K. Schmidt, Diamond Rel. Mater. 1, 810 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 5.35
    W. Zhu, F.R. Sivazlian, B.R. Stoner, and J.T. Glass, J. Mater. Res. 10, 425 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 5.36
    A.M. Bonnot, in Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Diamond and Diamond-Like Films, ed. J.P. Dismukes et al., The Electrochemical Society, Proceedings Volume 89-12, 579 (1989)Google Scholar
  37. 5.37
    T. Inoue, H. Tachibani, K. Kumagai, K. Miyata, K. Nishimura, K. Kobashi, and A. Nakaue, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 7329 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 5.38
    G. Popovici, C.H. Chao, M.A. Prelas, E.J. Charlson, and J.M. Meese, J. Mater. Res. 10, 2011 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 5.39
    Y.H. Lee, P.D. Richard, K.J. Bachmann, and J.T. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 620 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 5.40
    Y.H. Lee, G.-H. Ma, K.J. Bachmann, and J.T. Glass, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 162, 119 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 5.41
    G.-H.M. Ma, Y.H. Lee, and J.T. Glass, J. Mater. Res. 5, 2367 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 5.42
    S. Okoli, R. Haubner, and B. Lux, Diamond Rel. Mater. 1, 955 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 5.43
    W. Banholzer and R. Kehl, Surf. Coat. Technol. 47, 51 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 5.44
    M. Fryda, X. Jiang, L. Schäfer, and C.-P. Klages, Diamond Films ‘95, September 10–15, 1995, Tours, FranceGoogle Scholar
  45. 5.45
    L. Schäfer, M. Sattler, and C.-P. Klages, in Proceedings of the 2nd Internatinal Conference on the Applications of Diamond Films and Related Materials, MYU, Tokyo, ed. M. Yoshikawa et al. (1993), p. 133Google Scholar
  46. 5.46
    R. Kröger, L. Schäfer, C.-P. Klages, and R. Six, Phys. Status Solidi A 154, 33 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 5.47
    E. Kondo, T. Ohta, T. Mitomo, and K. Ohtsuka, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 705 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 5.48
    W.A. Yarbrough, K. Tankala, and T. DebRoy, J. Mater. Res. 7, 379 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 5.49
    C.-P. Klages, M. Sattler and L. Schäfer, in Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Diamond Materials, During the 183rd Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Honolulu, Hawai (1993)Google Scholar
  50. 5.50
    D.G. Goodwin, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6895 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 5.51
    G. Zhao, E. Charlson, B.-Y. Liaw, A. Khan, R. Roychoudhury, E.J. Charlson, T. Stacy, and J. Meese, Diamond Films Technol. 5, 67 (1995)Google Scholar
  52. 5.52
    L. Schäfer, M. Sattler, and C.-P. Klages, in Applications of Diamond Films and Related Materials, ed. Y. Tzeng et al., Elsevier, Amsterdam (1991), p. 453Google Scholar
  53. 5.53
    E. Kondoh, K. Tanaka, and T. Ohta, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4513 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. 5.54
    T. Suzuki and A. Argoitia, Phys. Status Solidi A 154, 239 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. 5.55
    C. Wild, W. Müller-Sebert, T. Eckermann, and P. Koidl, in Applications of Diamond Films and Related Materials, ed. Y. Tzeng et al., Elsevier, Amsterdam (1991), p. 197Google Scholar
  56. 5.56
    Y.-J. Baik and K.Y. Eun, Thin Solid Films 214, 123 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 5.57
    W.B. Alexander, P.H. Holloway, L. Heatherly, and R.E. Clausing, Surf. Coat. Technol. 54/55, 387 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 5.58
    D. Ganesan and S.C. Sharma, J. Mater. Res. 10, 1764 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 5.59
    X. Zhang, T. Shi, J. Wang, and X. Zhang, J. Cryst. Growth 155, 66 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 5.60
    C. Wild, P. Koidl, W. Müller-Sebert, H. Walcher, R. Kohl, R. Locher, and R. Samlenski, Diamond Rel. Mater. 2, 158 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 5.61
    R.E. Clausing, L. Heatherly, L.L. Horton, E.D. Specht, G.M. Begun and Z.L. Wang, Diamond Rel. Mater. 1, 411 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 5.62
    P. Yang, W. Zhu, J.T. Glass, US Patent Number 5, 298, 286 (1994)Google Scholar
  63. 5.63
    M.W. Geis, H.I. Smith, A. Argoitia, J. Angus, J.E. Butler, C.J. Robinson, and R. Pryor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2485 (1991)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 5.64
    F. Stubhan, M. Ferguson, H.-J. Füßer, and R.J. Behm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1900 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 5.65
    J. Yang, Z. Lin, L.-X. Wang, S. Jin, and Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3203 (1994)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 5.66
    Q. Chen, L.-X. Wang, Z. Zhang, J. Yang, and Z. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 176 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 5.67
    X. Jiang, K. Schiffmann, and C.-P. Klages, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8402 (1994)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  68. 5.68
    M. Fryda, unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  69. 5.69
    R. Haubner and B. Lux, Diamond Rel. Mater. 2, 1277 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 5.70
    A. Feldmann et al. (eds.), Applications of Diamond Films and Related Materials: Third International Conference, NIST Special Publication 885 (1995)Google Scholar
  71. 5.71
    C.-P. Klages, M. Fryda, T. Matthée, L. Schäfer, and H. Dimigen, in 14th International Plansee Seminar ‘97, Plansee Proceedings 3, 1 (1997)Google Scholar
  72. 5.72
    T. Leyendecker, O. Lemmer, S. Esser, and M. Frank, 4. Werkstoffwissenschaftliches Kolloquium Innovative Werkstofftechnologie, 1996, E. Lugscheider (Editor), Verlag Mainz, Wissenschaftsverlag Aachen, pp. 23–29Google Scholar
  73. 5.73
    L. Schaefer, A. Bluhm, M. Sattler, R. Six, and C.-P. Klages, in Applications of Diamond Films and Related Materials: Third International Conference, ed. A. Feldmann et al., NIST Special Publication 885, 399 (1995)Google Scholar
  74. 5.74
    J.E. Graebner, Diamond Films Technol. 3, 77 (1993)Google Scholar
  75. 5.75
    D.T. Morelli, C. Uher, and C.J. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1085 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  76. 5.76
    P. Boudreaux, in Applications of Diamond Films and Related Materials: Third International Conference, ed. A. Feldmann, NIST Special Publication 885, 603 (1995)Google Scholar
  77. 5.77
    Th. Matthée, L. Schäfer, A. Schmidt, and C.-P. Klages, Diamond Rel. Mater. 6, 293 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 5.78
    G.M. Swain, Adv. Mater. 6, 388 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claus-Peter Klages
    • 1
  • Lothar Schäfer
    • 1
  1. 1.Fraunhofer-Institut für Schicht- und OberflächentechnikBraunschweigGermany

Personalised recommendations