Experimental Basis for Immunotherapy of Metastases
Novel biological strategies have emerged in recent years for the treatment of cancer. These include transfer of hematopoietic stem cells for marrow reconstitution (BMT) after high-dose chemotherapy, transfer of activated tumor-reactive lymphocytes for adoptive cellular immunotherapy (ADI) of cancer and metastases, postoperative active specific immunization (ASI) with cancer vaccines, gene therapy, differentiation therapy, antisense therapy, immunotoxins or receptor-based therapies. Some biological treatments have already been established for certain forms of cancer, for instance interferon-α administration for Hairy cell leukemia, BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guérin) for superficial bladder carcinoma and allogeneic or autologous BMT for certain leukemic diseases. ADI was reported to have an overall response rate of about 25% in metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma patients. For the vast majority of human cancer, however, such as carcinomas of lung, gastrointestinal tract, breast or prostate, no effective biological treatments have been found yet.
This report does not attempt to review the whole area of immunotherapy but focuses on progress from the author’s laboratory.
KeywordsNewcastle Disease Virus Recombinant Inbred Bispecific Antibody Autologous Tumor Cell Graft Versus Leukemia
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