Interaction of Mixed Agonist-Antagonists with Different Receptor Sites Using Nalbuphine as a Model Substance

  • Enno Freye


Taking the prototype opiate receptors and their respective ligands, the mu-receptor is generally bound by morphine and the kappa-receptor by ethylketocyclazocine. A prototype for the delta-receptor, the binding site for most endogenous opioids, is leucine enkephalin (leu-enkephalin), a pentapeptide. It has a regulatory role in the nervous system for mediating analgesia, behavioural and endocrine changes. The sigma-receptor ligand is SKF10 047 (N-allylnormetazocine) which causes dysphoria and psychosis (Fig. 56).


Respiration Fentanyl Heroin Tramadol Nitroglycerine 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enno Freye
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of DüsseldorfDüsseldorf 1Germany
  2. 2.Department of Central DiagnosticsUniversity Clinic of EssenEssen 1Germany

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