Advertisement

Psychische Störungen nach geschlossenen Hirntraumen

  • P. W. Schönle

Zusammenfassung

Die psychischen Veränderungen sind nicht nur die häufigsten, sondern auch die schwerwiegendsten Folgen von Hirnverletzungen — sowohl für den einzelnen Patienten, da sie die spezifisch menschlichen Leistungen des Gehirns beeinträchtigen, als auch für seine Angehörigen, da sie zu tiefgreifenden Veränderungen in den intrafamiliären Beziehungen und den sozialen Bezügen führen.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Adams JH (1975) The neuropathology of head injuries. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Hand-book of Clinical Neurology, vol 23, part 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 35–65Google Scholar
  2. Adams JH, Parker LS, Graham DI, Doyle D (1980) The contusion index: a quantitative approach to cerebral contusions in head injury. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 6:319–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Annegers JF, Grabow JD, Groover RY et al. (1980) Seizures after head trauma: A population study. Neurology 30:683–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bear D, Fedio P (1977) Quantitative analysis of interictal behavior in temporal lobe epilepsy. Arch Neurol 34:454–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Benson DF (1979) Aphasia, alexia, and agraphia. Churchill Livingstone, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Benson DF, Geschwind N (1967) Shrinking retrograde amnesia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 30:539–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Böhler L (1954) Behandlung und Begutachtung der Gehirnerschütterung. Langenbecks Arch Klin Chir 279:182–187Google Scholar
  8. Boller FCM, Albert ML, LeMay M, Kertesz A (1972) Enlargement of the Sylvian aqueduct: a sequel of head injuries. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 35:463–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonhoeffer K (1912) Die Psychosen im Gefolge von akuten Infektionen, Allgemeinerkrankungen und inneren Erkrankungen. In: Aschaffenburg G (Hrsg) Handbuch der Psychiatrie, Bd HI/1. Springer, Berlin, S 1–120Google Scholar
  10. Bonhoeffer K (1917) Die exogenen Reaktionstypen. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 58:56–70Google Scholar
  11. Bresser PH (1961) Die Beurteilung der sogenannten traumatischen Hirnleistungsschwäche. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 29:33–55Google Scholar
  12. Bricolo A, Turazzi S, Feriotti G (1980) Prolonged post-traumatic unconsciousness. J Neurosurg 52:625–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brooks DN (1974) Recognition memory and head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 37:794–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brooks DN (1975) Long and short term memory in head injured patients. Cortex 11:329–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brooks DN (1976) Wechsler memory scale performance and its relationship to brain damage after severe closed head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39:593–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brooks DN, Aughton ME, Bond MR et al. (1980) Cognitive sequelae in relationship to early indices of severity of brain damage after severe blunt head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 43:529–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Carlsson C, Essen C von, Löfgren J (1968) Factors affecting clinical course of patients with severe head injuries. J Neurosurg 29:242–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Caveness WF (1974) Etiological and provocative factors: Trauma. In: Magnus O, Lorent De Haas AM (eds) Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol 15, The Epilepsies. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 274–294Google Scholar
  19. Caveness WF (1976) Epilepsy, a product of trauma in our time. Epilepsia 17:207–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Caveness WF (1979) Incidence of cranio-cerebral trauma in the US in 1976. Adv Neurology 22:1–3Google Scholar
  21. Caveness WF, Meirowsky AM, Rish BL, Mohr JP, Kistler JP, Dillon JD, Weiss GH (1979) The nature of post-traumatic epilepsy. J Neurosurgery 50:545–553Google Scholar
  22. Chedru F, Geschwind N (1972) Writing disturbances in acute confusional state. Neuropsychologia 10:343–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Clifton GL, Grossman RG, Makela ME et al. (1980) Neurological course and correlated computerized tomography findings after severe closed head injury. J Neurosurg 52:611–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cramon D von, Vogel M (1987) Die Störung von Sprechatmung, Phonation und Artikulation bei Patienten mit schwerem gedecktem Schädel-Hirn-Trauma. In: Kohlmeyer K (Hrsg) Aktuelle Probleme der Neurotraumatologie und Klinischen Neuropsychologie. Regensberg und Biermann, Oldenburg, S 143–149Google Scholar
  25. Denny-Brown D, Rüssel WR (1941) Experimental cerebral concussion. Brain 64:93Google Scholar
  26. Doden W, Bunge H (1965) Fusionsstörungen nach Schädelhirntraumen. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 146:845–853Google Scholar
  27. Domasio AR (1985) The frontal lobes. In: Heilman KM, Valenstein E (eds) Clinical neuropsychology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 339–376Google Scholar
  28. Fahy TJ, Irving MH, Millac P (1967) Severe head injuries: A six year follow-up. Lancet 2:475–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Frankowski RF (1986) The demography of head injury in the United States. In: Miner ME, Wagner KA (eds) Neurotrauma: treatment, rehabilitation, and related issues. Butterworth, MA, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  30. Frowein RA (1976) Classification of coma. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 34:5–70Google Scholar
  31. Frowein RA (1980) Prognostische Beurteilung des posttraumatischen Komas. In: Wieck HH (Hrsg) Neurotraumatologie. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 78–86Google Scholar
  32. Frowein RA, Steinmann HW, Terhaag D, Haar K auf der (1978) Koma-Einteilung und Verlauf- beobachtung. In: Hefte zur Unfallheilkunde, H 132:41. Jahrestagung der Dtsch Ges für Unfallheilkunde. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, S 187–195Google Scholar
  33. Gilchrist E, Wilkinson M (1979) Some factors determining prognosis in young people with severe head injuries. Arch Neurol 36:355–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Glötzner SL (1976) Posttraumatische Epilepsie. Fortschr Med 94:1027–1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Golden CJ (1981) A standardized version of Luria’s neuropsychological tests. In: Filskov SJ, Boll TJ (eds) Handbook of clinical neuropsychology. John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Groher M (1983) Communication disorders. In: Rosenthal M, Griffith E, Bond M, Miller J (eds) Rehabilitation of the head injured adult. F. A. Davis, Philadelphia, pp 155–165Google Scholar
  37. Gronwall DMG, Wrightson P (1974) Delayed recovery of intellectual function after minor head injury. Lancet 2:605–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Groswasser Z, Reider-Groswasser I, Soroker N, Machtey Y (1987) Magnetic resonance imaging in head injured patients with normal late computed tomography scans. Surg Neurol 27:331–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Guidice MA, Berchou RC (1987) Post-traumatic epilepsy following head injury. Brain Injury 1:61–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hamster H, Langner W, Mayer K (1980) Tübinger-Luria-Christensen Neuropsychologische Untersuchungsreihe. Beltz Test Gesellschaft, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  41. Harrison MS (1956) Notes on the clinical features and pathology of postconcussional vertigo, with special reference to positional nystagmus. Brain 79:474–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hartje W (1981) Neuropsychologische Diagnose zerebraler Funktionsbeeinträchtigungen. Eine empirische Untersuchung der Möglichkeiten und Grenzen. Nervenarzt 52:649–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Heilman KM, Safran A, Geschwind N (1971) Closed head injury and aphasia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 34:265–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Heiskanen O, Sipponen P (1970) Prognosis of severe brain injury. Acta Neurol Scand 46:343–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Helm NA, Butler RB, Benson DF (1978) Acquired stuttering. Neurology 28:1159–1165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. L.C.D. — 10 (1987) Draft of chapter V, categories F00-F99, mental, behavioral and developmental disorders. Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. World Health Organization, Division of Mental Health, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  47. Jefferson G (1938) The tentorial pressure cone. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 40:857Google Scholar
  48. Jellinger K (1967) Häufigkeit und Pathogenese zentraler Hirnläsionen nach stumpfer Gewalteinwirkung auf den Schädel. Z Nervenheilkd 25:223–249Google Scholar
  49. Jellinger K, Seitelberger F (1970) Protracted posttraumatic encephalopathy: pathology, pathogenesis and clinical implications. J Neurol Sei 10:51–94Google Scholar
  50. Jenkins A, Teasdale G, Hadley MD, Macpherson P, Rowan JO (1986) Brain lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging in mild and severe head injuries. Lancet 2:445–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Jennett B (1969) Early traumatic epilepsy. Lancet 1:1023–1025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Jennett B (1975) Epilepsy after non-missile head injuries. Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar
  53. Jennett B (1976) Prognosis after head injury. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 669–681Google Scholar
  54. Jennett B (1976) Assessment of severity of head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39:647–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Jennett B (1979) Predictors of recovery in evaluation of patients in coma. Adv Neurol 22:129–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jennett B, Bond MR (1975) Assessment of outcome after severe brain injury: A practical scale. Lancet 1:480–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jennett B, Teasdale G (1981) Management of head injuries. F. A. Davis, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  58. Jennett B, Teasdale G, Braakman R, Minderhound J, Heiden J, Knill-Jones R (1976) Predicting outcome in individual patients after severe head injury. Lancet 1:1031–1034PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Jennett B, Snoek J, Bond MR, Brooks N (1981) Disability after severe head injury: observations on the use of the Glasgow outcome scale. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 44:285–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kalsbeek WD, McLaurin RL, Harris BSH, Miller JD (1980) Report on the national head and spinal cord injury survey: Major findings. J Neurosurg [Suppl]53:S19–S31Google Scholar
  61. Keane JR (1980) Blindness following tentorial herniation. Ann Neurol 2:186–191Google Scholar
  62. Kretschmer E (1940) Das apallische Syndrom. Z Ges Neurol Psychiatr 169:576–579Google Scholar
  63. Kretzschmar K (1987) Die posttraumatische Hirnathrophie und der posttraumatische Hydrozephalus im Computertomogramm. In: Kohlmeyer K (Hrsg) Aktuelle Probleme der Neurotraumatologie und klinischen Neuropsychologie. Regensberg und Biermann, Oldenburg S 319–323Google Scholar
  64. Ladurner G, Sager WD (1980) Die Begutachtung des Schädelhirn traumas und die Computertomographie. In: Wieck HH (Hrsg) Neurotraumatologie. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 260–263Google Scholar
  65. Lange G, Kornhuber HH (1962) Zur Bedeutung peripher- und zentralvestibulärer Störungen nach Kopftraumen. Arch Ohr Nas Kehlk Heilkd 179:366–385Google Scholar
  66. Laubichler W, Klimesch W (1981) Der traumatische Dämmerzustand. Nervenarzt 52:36–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Leischner A (1987) Traumatisch bedingte Aphasien. In: Kohlmeyer K (Hrsg) Aktuelle Probleme der Neurotraumatologie und Klinischen Neuropsychologie. Regensberg und Biermann, Oldenburg, S 143–149Google Scholar
  68. Levin HS, Grossman RG (1978) Behavioral sequelae of closed head injury: a quantitative approach. Arch Neurol 35:720–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Levin HS, Grossman RG, Kelley PJ (1976) Aphasie disorders in patients with closed head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39:1062–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Levin HS, Grossmann RG, Rose JE, Teasdale G (1979) Long-term neuropsychological outcome of closed head injury. J Neurosurg 50:412–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Levin HS, Grossman RG, Sarwar M, Meyers CA (1981) Linguistic recovery after closed head injury. Brain Language 12:360–374Google Scholar
  72. Lewin W (1976) Changing attitudes to the management of severe head injuries. Br Med J 2:1234–1239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lezak MD (1976) Recovery of memory and learning functions following traumatic brain injury. Cortex 12:63–72Google Scholar
  74. Lezak MD (1978) Living with the characterologically altered brain-injured patient. J Clin Psychiatry 39:592–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lurija AR (1969) Frontal lobe syndrom. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol 2. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  76. Lurija AR, Naytin VL, Tsvetkova LS, Vinarskaya EN (1969) Restoration of higher cortical function following local brain damage. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol 3. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  77. Mandleberg IA (1975) Cognitive recovery after severe head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 38:1127–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Mandleberg IA (1976) Cognitive recovery after severe head injury. 3. WAIS verbal and performance IQs as a function of post-traumatic amnesia duration and time from injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39:1001–1007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Mandleberg I A, Brooks DN (1975) Cognitive recovery after severe head injury. 1. Serial testing on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 38:1121–1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Marx HM (1977) Medizinische Begutachtung. 3. Aufl. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  81. Mayr S (1952) Zur Begutachtung der Gehirnerschütterung. Wien Med Wochenschr 102:126–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Medical News (1984) JAMA 251:1645–1649Google Scholar
  83. Merskey H, Woodforde J (1972) Psychiatric sequelae of minor head injury. Brain 95:521–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Meyer J-E (1955) Die sexuellen Störungen der Hirnverletzten. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 193:449–469Google Scholar
  85. Miller E (1970) Simple and choice reaction time following severe head injury. Cortex 6:121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Miller H (1961) Accident neurosis. Br Med J 1:919–925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Miller H, Stern G (1965) The long-term prognosis of severe head injury. Lancet 1:225–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Milner B (1969) Residual intellectual memory deficits after head injury. In: Walker AE, Caveness WF, Critchley M (eds) The late effects of head injury. Thomas, Springfield/IllGoogle Scholar
  89. Morsier G de (1973) Sur 23 cas d’aphasie traumatique. Psychiatr Clin 6:226–239Google Scholar
  90. Oddy M, Humphrey M (1980) Social recovery during the year following severe head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 43:798–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ommaya AK, Gennarelli TA (1974) Cerebral concussion and unconsciousness: correlation of experimental and clinical observations on blunt head injuries. Brain 97:633–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Oppenheimer DR (1968) Microscopic lesions in the brain following head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 31:299–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Pampus I, Seidenfaden I (1974) Die posttraumatische Epilepsie. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 43:329–384Google Scholar
  94. Partington MW (1960) The importance of accident-proneness in the etiology of head injuries in children. Arch Dis Child 35:215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Peters G (1969) Pathologische Anatomie der Verletzungen des Gehirns und seiner Häute. In: Kessel F, Guttmann L, Maurer G (Hrsg) Neurotraumatologie mit Einschluß der Grenzgebiete, Bd I. Urban und Schwarzenberg, München, S 37–91Google Scholar
  96. Peterson GE (1986) Psychische Störungen nach Hirntrauma. In: Freedman AM, Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ, Peters UH (Hrsg) Psychiatrie in Praxis und Klinik, Bd 2. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  97. Poeck K (1983) Die geschlossenen traumatischen Hirnschädigungen. In: Hopf HCH, Poeck K, Schliak H (Hrsg) Neurologie in Praxis und Klinik. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 3.16–3.34Google Scholar
  98. Reitan RM, Davidson LA (1974) Clinical neuropsychology: current status and applications. John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. Rimel RW, Jane JA (1983) Characteristics of the head-injured patient. In: Rosenthal M, Griffith ER, Bond MR, Miller JD (eds) Rehabilitation of the head injured adult. F. A. Davis Company, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  100. Rimel R, Giordani B, Barth J et al. (1981) Disability caused by minor head injury. Neurosurgery 9:221–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Roberts AH (1969) Brain damage in boxers. Pitman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  102. Rowe J, Carlson C (1980) Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in postconcussion dizziness. Arch Neurol 37:679–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Rubens AB, Geschwind N, Mahowald MW, Mastri A (1977) Posttraumatic cerebral hemispheric disconnection syndrome. Arch Neurol 34:750–755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Russell WR (1932) Cerebral involvement in head injury. Brain 55:549–603Google Scholar
  105. Russell WR, Smith A (1961) Post-traumatic amnesia in closed head injury. Arch Neurol 5:4–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Scheid W (1983) Lehrbuch der Neurologie, 5. Aufl. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  107. Schönle PW, Wiebold G, Wieding J, Conrad B (1987) Mikrocomputer und Rehabilitation kognitiver Hirnleistungsstörungen. Z Rehabilitation (im Druck)Google Scholar
  108. Seltzer B, Sherwin I (1978) “Organic brain syndromes”: An empirical study and critical review. Am J Psychiat 135:13–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Snow RB, Zimmermann RD, Gandy SE, Deck MD (1986) Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in the evaluation of head injury. Neurosurgery 18:45–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Stammler A (1980) Richtlinien der Begutachtung. In: Wieck HH (Hrsg) Neurotraumatologie. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 244–250Google Scholar
  111. Steadman JH, Graham JG (1970) Head injuries: An analysis and follow-up study. Proc R Soc Med 63:23–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Strich S J (1956) The pathology of severe head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 19:163–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Sturm W (1984) Neuropsychologische Diagnostik. Z Diff Diagn Psychologie 5:37–57Google Scholar
  114. Stuss DT, Alexander MP, Lieberman A, Levine H (1978) An extraordinary form of confabulation. Neurology 28:1166–1172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Suchenwirth RM A (1977) Neurologische Begutachtung. Fischer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  116. Taylor AR (1966) Slowing of cerebral circulation following concussional head injury. In: Caveness WF, Walker AE (eds) Head injury. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  117. Teasdale G, Jennett B (1974) Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: a practical scale. Lancet 2:605–609Google Scholar
  118. Thomsen I (1984) Late outcome of very severe blunt head trauma: a 10–15 year second follow-up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 47:260–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Unterharnscheidt F (1972) Die traumatischen Hirnschäden. Mechanogenese, Pathomorphologie und Klinik. Z Rechtsmed 71:153–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Unterharnscheidt F (1980) Neuro traumatologie: Biomechanik, Pathomorphologie und Pathophysiologie. In: Wieck HH (Hrsg) Neurotraumatologie. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 2–14Google Scholar
  121. Walsh KW (1978) Neuropsychology. Churchill Livingstone, EdingburghGoogle Scholar
  122. Welter F, Diederich M, Müller E (1987) Über die Bewertung computertomographischer Befunde bei der Begutachtung von Schädel-Hirntraumen. In: Kohlmeyer K (Hrsg) Aktuelle Probleme der Neurotraumatologie und klinischen Neuropsychologie. Regensberg und Biermann, Oldenburg, S 68Google Scholar
  123. Whittey CWM, Zangwill OL (1977) Traumatic amnesia. In: Whittey CWM, Zangwill OL (eds) Amnesia, 2nd edn. Butterworths, London, pp 118–135Google Scholar
  124. Wieck HH (1967) Exogene Psychosen. Die reversiblen Syndrome der körperlich begründbaren Psychosen. In: Almanach für Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 7. Folge. Lehmann, München, S 213–235Google Scholar
  125. Wieck HH (1980) Neuro traumatologie. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  126. Wieck HH (1977) Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie. Schattauer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  127. Zimmermann RA, Bilaniuk LT, Hackney DB, Goldberg HI, Grossman RI (1986) Head injury: early results of comparing CT and high-field MR. AJR 147:1215–1222Google Scholar
  128. Zomeren AH van, Deelman BG (1976) Differential effects of simple and choice reaction after closed head injury. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 79:81–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Zomeren AH van, Deelman BG (1978) Long-term recovery of visual reaction time after closed head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 41:452–457PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. W. Schönle

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations