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Neuropsychologie

  • G. Assal

Zusammenfassung

Mit dem Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts dringen Ärzte in Bereiche ein, die bis dahin meist den Priestern vorbehalten waren. Sie versuchen nichts Geringeres, als die Seele in den Griff zu bekommen; diese setzt sich nach der von dem großen Anatomen Franz Gall begründeten phrenologischen Lehre aus mehreren Fähigkeiten zusammen. Thesen dieser Art gewinnen heute wieder erheblich an Interesse; dies zeigt die Schrift des amerikanischen Philosophen Fodor über die Modularität des Geistes. Die Vorahnungen dieser Positivisten erfahren eine Bestätigung durch die Entdeckung des Chirurgen und Anthropologen Paul Broca (1865), der nicht nur die Funktion der gesprochenen Sprache in die dritte Frontalwindung lokalisiert, sondern auch das Prinzip der zerebralen Dominanz bestätigt. Von da an erlebt das Studium der Beziehungen von Verhalten und Gehirn ein wahrhaft goldenes Zeitalter, das mit dem Ende des ersten Weltkrieges ausklingt. Wenn für die progressive Paralyse und gewisse Formen geistigen Abbaus der Beweis ihrer Organizität erbracht wurde, so gelingt dies nicht in gleicher Weise für die großen Psychosen, noch weniger für die Neurosen. Die Scheidung einer Neurologie, die sich nicht für das Verhalten interessiert, und einer Psychiatrie, die sich vom Gehirn abwendet, bahnt sich an.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

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  • G. Assal

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