Advertisement

Radioimmunoassay of Platelet Proteins

  • D. S. Pepper
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 82)

Abstract

The platelets, formed by fragmentation from the megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, circulate in the blood and play a significant role in normal haemostasis as well as in pathological processes such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, inflammation and immune rejection. Within the platelet are secretory storage vesicles of both dense and a granules containing respectively lower and higher molecular weight species. The contents of the a granules are largely proteins and include not only the familiar plasma proteins such as albumin and fibrinogen, but also a large proportion of unique proteins that have been referred to as platelet-specific granule proteins. Since normal plasma contains only low levels of these latter proteins, their assay measurement in plasma ex vivo constitutes a valuable method of measuring platelet activation and secretion as it occurs in vivo.

Keywords

Platelet Activation Human Platelet Anti Platelet Drug Platelet Protein Platelet Release 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albala MM, Levine PH (1984) Platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin in moya-moya disease. Am J Pediatr Haematol Oncol. 6: 96–99Google Scholar
  2. Almondhiry H, Pierce WS, Pennock JL (1985) Platelet release in coronary heart disease - effect of antiplatelet drugs and coronary artery bypass graft. J Lab Clin Med. 105: 397–402Google Scholar
  3. Andrassy K, Deppermann D, Ritz E, Koderisch J, Seelig H (1980) Different effects of renal failure on beta-thromboglobulin and high affinity platelet factor 4 (HA-PF4) concentrations. Thromb Res. 18: 469–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aren C, Fedderson K, Tegernilsson AC, Radegran K (1983) Effects of prostacyclin infusion of platelet release during extracorporal circulation. Int J Microcirc. 2: 268–269Google Scholar
  5. Arocha-Pinango CL, Ojeda A, Lopez G, Garcia L, Linares J (1985) Beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) in obstetrical cases. Acta Obstet Sci. 2: 115–120Google Scholar
  6. Aushri Z, Berginer V, Nathan I, Dvilansky A (1983) Plasma thromboglobulin and platelet aggregation index in transient ischemic attack - effect of aspirin and dipyridamole therapy. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 3: 339–342Google Scholar
  7. Baele G, Rottiers R, Rubens R, Priem H (1982) Effect of ticlopidine on plasma beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 levels in diabetes mellitus - preliminary finds. Haemos- tasis. 12: 138Google Scholar
  8. Baenziger NL, Brodie GN, Majerus PW (1971) A thrombin sensitive protein of human platelet membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 68: 240–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barber AJ, Kaserglanzmann R, Jakabova M, Luscher E (1972) Characterization of a chon- droitin 4-sulphate proteoglycan carrier for heparin neutralizing activity (platelet factor 4) released from human blood platelet. Biochim Biophys Acta. 286: 312–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Begg GS, Pepper DS, Chesterman CN, Morgan FJ (1978) Complete covalent structure of human ßthromboglobulin. Biochemistry. 17: 1739–1744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Belch JJF, Greer I, McLaren M, Saniabadi AR, Miller S, Sturrock RD, Forbes CD (1985) The effects of intravenous ZK36-374, a stable prostacyclin analogue, on normal volunteers: a potential treatment for Raynaud’s syndrome. Scot Med J. 30: 124Google Scholar
  12. Bern MM, Green J (1982) Effect of sulfinpyrazone upon antithrombin III and platelet factor 4 in chronic renal failure. Thromb Res. 27: 457–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berrettini M, Parise P, Costantini V, Grasselli S, Nenci GG (1985) Platelet activation in psoriasis. Thromb Haemost. 53: 195–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Blattler W, Furrer K, Schriber K, Kofmehl R, Massini C (1981) Platelet proteins during and after prostacyclin therapy for lower limb ischaemia: suggestion of a rebound platelet activation. Vasa. 10: 261–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Blattler W, Diener R, Haeberli A, Straub PW (1984) Plasma levels of beta-thromboglobu- lin and platelet factor 4 in peripheral vascular disease. Vasa. SI2:75–80Google Scholar
  16. Bock PE, Luscombe M, Marshall SE, Pepper DS, Holbrook JJ (1982) The effect of concentrations and ionic strength on the aggregation of ß-thromboglobulin. Thromb Res 25: 169 - 172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bolton AE, Ludlam CA, Moore S, Pepper DS, Cash JD (1976 a) Three approaches to the radioimmunoassay of human ß-thromboglobulin. Br J Haematol. 33: 233–238Google Scholar
  18. Bolton AE, Ludlam CA, Pepper DS, Moore S, Cash JD (1976 b) A radioimmunoassay for platelet factor 4. Thromb Res. 8: 51–58Google Scholar
  19. Borsey DQ, Prowse CV, Gray RS, Dawes J, James K, Elton RA, Clarke BF (1984) Platelet and coagulation factors in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. J Clin Pathol. 37:659– 664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bowenpope DF, Ross R (1985) Methods for studying the platelet derived growth factor receptor. Methods Enzymol. 109: 69–100Google Scholar
  21. Bowenpope DF, Malpass TW, Foster DM, Ross R (1984) Platelet derived growth factor in vivo - levels, activity and rate of clearance. Blood. 64: 458–169Google Scholar
  22. Brindley LL, Sweet JM, Goetzl EJ (1983) Stimulation of histamine release from human basophils by human platelet factor 4. J Clin Invest. 72: 1218–1223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brown TR, Ho TTS, Walz DA (1980) Improved radioimmunoassay of platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin in plasma. Clin Chim Acta. 101: 225–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Buccianti G, Pogliani E, Miradoli R, Colombi MA, Valenti G, Lorenz M, Polli EE (1982) Reduction of plasma levels of betathromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 during hemo-dialysis - a possible role for a short acting inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Clin Nephrol. 18: 204–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bugiardini R, Chierchia S, Roskovec A, Wild S, Lenzi S, Maseri A (1982) Response of platelet release factors and aggregation to catheter induced activation and prostacyclin infusion in man. Clin Sci. 63: P73Google Scholar
  26. Busch C, Dawes J, Pepper DS, Wasteson A (1980) The binding of PF4 to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Thromb Res. 19: 129–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cade JF, Doyle DJ, Chesterman CN, Morgan FJ, Rennie GC (1982) Platelet function in coronary artery disease: effects of coronary surgery and sulfinpyrazone. Circulation. 66: 29–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chesebro JH, Fuster V, Pumphrey CW, McGoon DC, Pluth JR, Puga FJ, Orszulak TA, Piehler JM, Schaff HY, Danielson GK (1981) Combined warfarin platelet inhibitor antithrombotic therapy in prosthetic heart valve replacement. Circulation. 64: 76Google Scholar
  29. Ciaglowski RE, Snow JW, Walz DA (1981) Bovine platelet antiheparin protein–platelet factor 4. Ann NY Acad Sci. 370: 668–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Clezardin P, McGregor JL, Manach M, Robert F, Dechavanne M, Clemetson KJ (1984) Isolation of thrombospondin released from thrombin stimulated human platelets by fast protein liquid chromatography on an anion exchange Mono-Q chain. J Chroma- togr. 296: 249–256Google Scholar
  31. Contant G, Gouault-Heilmann M, Martinoli JL (1983) Heparin inactivation during blood storage: its prevention by blood collection in citric acid, theophylline, adenosine, dipy- ridamole-CTAD mixture. Thromb Res. 31: 365–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cooke ED, Bolton AE, Levack B (1981) Thromboglobulin levels in postoperative deep vein thrombosis. Lancet. 2: 1427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cordopatri F, Boncinelli S, Marsili M, Lorenzi P, Fabbri LP, Paci P, Salvadori M, Morfini M, Cinotti S, Casparini P (1982) Effects of charcoal hemoperfusion with prostacyclin on the coagulation-fibrinolysis system and platelets of patients with fulminant hepatic failure - preliminary observations. Int J Artif Organ. 5: 243–247Google Scholar
  34. D’Andrea G, Cananzi D, Toldo M, Cortelazzo S, Ferro-Milone F (1983) Platelet behaviour in classic migraine: responsiveness to small doses of aspirin. Thromb Haemost. 49: 153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Davi G, Novo S, Gullotti A, Avellone G, Sofia MA, Strano A (1984) Sulfinpyrazone and platelet function in hypertensive patients. Thromb Haemost. 51: 413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Davis JW, Hartman CR, Shelton L, Ruttinger HA (1983) Effect of tobacco smoking on release of platelet specific proteins. Clin Res. 31: A768Google Scholar
  37. Davis LE, Castor CW, Tinney FJ, Anderson B (1985) Preparation and characterisation of antibodies with specificity for the amino-terminal tetrapeptide sequence of the platelet derived connective tissue activating peptide-III. Biochem Int 10: 395–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dawes J, Smith RC, Pepper DS (1978) The release distribution and clearance of human ß-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4. Thromb Res. 12: 851–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dawes J, Pumphrey CW, McLaren KM, Prowse CV, Pepper DS (1982) The in vivo release of human platelet factor 4 by heparin. Thromb Res. 27: 65–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Dawes J, Clemetson KJ, Gogstad GO, McGregor J, Clezardin P, Prowse CV, Pepper DS (1983) A radioimmunoassay for thrombospondin used in a comparative study of thrombospondin, ß-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 in healthy volunteers. Thromb Res. 29: 569–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dawes J, Miller WR, Brown K (1985) Thrombospondin in milk and other breast secretions; a new marker for breast cyst classification. Thromb Haemost 54: 64Google Scholar
  42. Deboer AC, Han P, Turpie AGG, Butt R, Zielinski A, Genton E (1981) Plasma and urine ß-thromboglobulin concentration in patients with deep vein thrombosis. Blood. 58: 693–698Google Scholar
  43. Deboer AC, Genton E, Turpie AGG (1982) Chemistry, measurement and clinical significance of platelet specific proteins. CRC Crit Rev Lab Sci. 18: 183–211Google Scholar
  44. Deboer AC, Han P, Turpie AGG, Butt R, Gent M, Genton E (1983) Platelet tests and antiplatelet drugs in coronary artery disease.Circulation. 67: 500–504Google Scholar
  45. Ditter H, Heinrich D, Matthias FR, Sellmann-Richter R, Wagner WL, Hehrlein FW (1983) Effects of prostacyclin during cardiopulmonary bypass in men on plasma levels of ß-thromboglobulin, platelet factor 4, thromboxane B2, 6-keto-prostaglandin Fla and heparin. Thromb Res. 32: 393–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Douglas JT, Blarney SL, Lowe GDO, Carter DC, Forbes CD (1985) Plasma beta-throm- boglobulin, fibrinopeptide A and B/715-42 antigen in relation to postoperative DVT, malignancy and stanozolol treatment. Thromb Haemost. 53: 235–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Duncan A, Depratti VJ, George RR (1981) Elevated ß-thromboglobulin levels associated with smoking and oral contraceptive agents in normal healthy women. Thromb Res. 21: 425–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fabris F, Randi ML, Crociani ME, Manzoni S, Tonin P, Dezanche L, Cella G, Girolami A (1983) Platelet specific proteins in patients with transient ischemic attacks - effects of anti-platelet drugs. Ric Clin Lab. 13: 437–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fabris F, Randi ML, Casonato A, Zanon RDB, Bovicini P, Girolami A (1984) Clinical significance of beta-thromboglobulin in patients with high platelet count. Acta Haematol. 71: 32–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fabris F, Luzzatto G, Girolami A (1985) The value of ß-TG/PF4 ratio in patients with high platelet count. Thromb Haemost 53: 288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Files JC, Malpass TW, Yee EK, Ritchie JL, Harker LA (1981) Studies of human platelet alpha-granule release in vivo. Blood. 58: 607–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fitchett D, Toth E, Gilmore N, Ehrman M (1983) Platelet release of beta-thromboglobulin within the coronary circulation during cold pressor stress. Am J Cardiol. 52: 727–730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Flicker W, Milthorpe BK, Schindhelm K, Odell RA, McPherson J, Farrell PC (1982) Platelet factor release following heparin administration and during extracorporeal circulation. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 28: 431–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gartner TK, Walz DA (1983) TFP inhibits the expression of the endogenous platelet lectin and secretion of alpha-granules. Thromb Res. 29: 63–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ginsberg MH, Hoskins R, Sigrist P, Painter RG (1979) Purification of a heparin neutralizing protein from rabbit platelets and its homology with human platelet factor 4. J Biol Chem. 254: 2365–2371Google Scholar
  56. Goetzl EJ, Brindley LL, Sweet JM, Handin RI (1983) Unique mechanism of stimulation of human basophils by platelet factor 4. Clin Res. 31: A457Google Scholar
  57. Handin RI, McDonough M, Lesch M (1978) Elevation of platelet factor four in acute myocardial infarction: measurement by radioimmunoassay. J Lab Clin Med. 91: 340–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hay CRM, Durber AP, Saynor R (1982) Effect of fish oil on platelet kinetics in patients with ischaemic heart disease. Lancet. 1: 1269–1272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Heldin CH, Westerman B, Wasteson A (1981) Demonstration of an antibody against platelet derived growth factor. Exp Cell Res. 136: 255–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Holan J, Kubisz P, Cronberg S, Parizek M (1984) Platelet function studies in diabetics with beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) platelet factor 4 (PF4) and thromboxane-B2 (TXB2) RIA assay. Eur J Nucl Med. 9: A75Google Scholar
  61. Hope W, Martin TJ, Chesterman CN, Morgan FJ (1979) Human ß-thromboglobulin inhibits PGI2 production and binds to a specific site in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Nature. 282: 210–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hunter WM (1977) Simplified solid-phase radioimmunoassay without centrifugation. Acta Endocrinol. 85: 463Google Scholar
  63. Ikeda T, Nonaka Y, Goto A, Ishii M (1985) Effects of praxosin on platelet aggregation and plasma beta-thromboglobulin in essential hypertension. Clin Pharmacol. 37: 601–605Google Scholar
  64. Jaffe EA, Leung LLK, Nachman RL, Levin RI, Mosher DF (1982) Thrombospondin is the endogenous lectin of human platelets. Nature. 295: 246–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Janka HU, Standi E, Schramm W, Mehnert H (1983) Platelet enzyme activities in diabetes mellitus in relation to endothelial damage Diabetes. 32: 47–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kahaleh MB, Osborn I, Leroy EC (1982) Elevated levels of circulating platelet aggregates and beta-thromboglobulin in scleroderma. Ann Intern Med. 96: 610–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kaplan KL, Niewiarowski S (1985) Nomenclature of secreted platelet proteins - report of the working party on secreted platelet proteins of the subcommittee on platelets. Thromb Haemost. 53: 282–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kaplan KL, Owen J (1981) Plasma levels of ß-thromboglobulin and PF4 as indexes of platelet activation in vivo. Blood. 57: 199–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kaplan KL, Owen J (1982) Radioimmunoassay of ß-thromboglobulin. Methods Enzymol. 84: 93–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kaplan KL, Nossel HL, Drillings M, Lesznik G (1978) Radioimmunoassay of platelet factor 4 and ß-thromboglobulin: development and application to studies of platelet release in relation to fibrinopeptide A generation. Br J Haematol. 39: 129–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kerry PJ, Curtis AD (1985) Standardisation of ß-thromboglobulin (ß-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF4): a collaborative study to establish international standards for ß-TG and PF4. Thromb Haemost. 53: 51–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kjeldsen SE, Gjesdal K, Eide I, Aakesson I, Amundsen R, Foss OP, Leren P (1983) Increased beta-thromboglobulin in essential hypertension - interactions between arterial plasma adrenaline, platelet function and blood lipids. Acta Med Scand. 213: 369–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kordenat K, Dawes J, Pepper DS (1983) Canine thrombospondin (TSP) levels measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay before and during acute coronary thrombosis. Thromb Haemost. 49: 250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lane DA, Ireland H, WolffS, Ranasinghe E, Dawes J (1984) Detection of enhanced in vivo platelet a-granule release in different patient groups - comparison of ß-thromboglobu- lin, platelet factor 4 and thrombospondin assays. Thromb Haemost. 52: 183–187Google Scholar
  75. Lawler JW (1981) Prediction of the secondary structure of platelet factor 4 and ß-throm-boglobulin from their amino acid sequences. Thromb Res. 21: 121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lawler JW, Slayter HS, Coligan JE (1978) Isolation and characterization of a high molecular weight glycoprotein from human blood platelets. J Biol Chem. 253: 8609–8616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Levine SP, Krentz LS (1977) Development of a radioimmunoassay for human platelet factor 4. Thromb Res. 11: 673–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Levine SP, Lindenfeld J, Crawford M, Horwitz LD (1979) Effects of catecholamines on plasma platelet factor 4 in normal human subjects. Clin Res. 27: A462Google Scholar
  79. Levine SP, Suarez AJ, Sorenson RR, Knieriem LK, Raymond NM (1981 a) The importance of blood collection methods for assessment of platelet activation. Thromb Res. 24: 433–443Google Scholar
  80. Levine PH, Fisher M, Fullerton AL, Duffy CP, Hoogasian JJ (1981 b) Human platelet factor 4 - preparation from outdated platelet concentrates and application in cerebral vascular disease. Am J Haematol. 10: 375–385Google Scholar
  81. Levine SP, Knieriem LK, Harris MA, George JN (1982) Emotional stress, catecholamines (CATS) and platelet activation. Circulation. 66: 52Google Scholar
  82. Levine SP, Suarez AJ, Sorenson RR, Raymond NM, Knieriem LK (1984) Platelet factor 4 release during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Haematol. 17: 117–127Google Scholar
  83. Levine SP, Towell BL, Suarez AM, Knieriem LK, Harris MM, George JN (1985) Platelet activation and secretion associated with emotional stress. Circulation. 71: 1129–1134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Longenecker GL, Bowen RJ, Swift I A, Beyers BJ (1984) Increased beta-thromboglobulin in the serum of smokers occurs because of increased platelet counts. Res Commun Sub Abuse. 5: 147–152Google Scholar
  85. Longo G, Cecchi F, Grossi A, Matucci M, Rafanelli D, Vannucchi AM, Casprini P, Mor- fini M, Dolara A (1984) Coagulation and platelet function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thromb Haemost. 51: 299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ludlam CA, Cash JD (1976) Studies on the liberation of ß-thromboglobulin from human platelets in vitro. Br J Haematol. 33: 239–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Ludlam CA, Allan N, Blandford RB, Dowdle R, Bentley NJ, Bloom AL (1981) Platelet and coagulation function in patients with abnormal cardiac valves treated with sulphin- pyrazone. Thromb Haemost. 46: 743–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Luscombe M, Marshall SE, Pepper DS, Holbrook JJ (1981) The transfer of platelet factor 4 from its proteoglycan carrier to natural and synthetic polymers. Biochim Biophys Acta. 678: 137–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Luster AD, Unkeless JC, Ravetch JV (1985) y-Interferon transcriptionally regulates an early response gene containing homology to platelet proteins. Nature. 315: 672–676Google Scholar
  90. Manotti C, Quintavalla R, Manzoni GC (1983) Platelet activation in migraine. Thromb Haemost. 50: 758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Mant MJ, Kappagoda CT, Taylor RF, Quinlan JE (1984) Platelet activation caused by cardiac catheter blood collection and its prevention. Thromb Res. 33: 177–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Margossian SS, Lawler JW, Slayter HS (1981) Physical characterisation of platelet throm- bospondin. J Biol Chem. 256: 7495–7500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. McPherson J, Sage H, Bornstein P (1981) Isolation and characterization of a glycoprotein secreted by aortic endothelial cells in culture. Apparent identity with platelet thrombo- spondin. J Biol Chem. 256: 11330–11336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Messmore HL, Walenga JM, Fareed J (1984) Molecular markers of platelet activation. Semin Thromb Hemost. 10:264 –269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Moore S, Pepper DS, Cash JD (1975 a) Platelet antiheparin activity: the isolation and characterisation of platelet factor 4 released from thrombin-aggregated washed human platelets and its dissociation into subunits and the isolation of membrane bound antiheparin activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 379: 370–384Google Scholar
  96. Moore S, Pepper DS, Cash JD (1975 b) The isolation and characterisation of a platelet spe-cific ß-globulin (ß-thromboglobulin) and the detection of anti-urokinase and antiplas- min released from thrombin aggregated washed human platelets. Biochim Biophys Acta. 379: 360–369Google Scholar
  97. Mosher DF, Doyle MJ, Jaffe EA (1982) Synthesis and secretion of thrombospondin by cultured human endothelial cells. J Cell Biol. 93: 343–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Motomiya T, Yamazaki H (1981) Plasma ß-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 during the normal menstrual cycle. Acta Haematol Jpn. 44: 193–195Google Scholar
  99. Muggli R, Glatthaar B, Mittelholzer E, Tschopp TB (1981) Purification, characterization and radioimmunoassay of a new antiheparin protein secreted by rabbit platelets. Thromb Haemost. 46: 20Google Scholar
  100. Muhlhauser I, Schernthaner G, Silberbauer K, Sinzinger H, Kaliman J (1980) Platelet proteins (Beta-TG and PF4) in atherosclerosis and related diseases. Artery. 8: 73–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Muhlhauser I, Schernthaner G, Silberbauer K, Sinzinger H, Kaindl F (1981) Plasma concentrations of platelet specific proteins in coronary artery disease. Cardiology. 68:129– 138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Najean Y, Poirier O (1984) Beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 in polycythemia patients treated by ticlopidine. Acta Haematol. 72: 83–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Niewiarowski S, Poplawski A, Lipinski B, Farbiszewski R (1968) The release of platelet clotting factors during aggregation and viscous metamorphosis. Exp Biol Med. 3: 121–128Google Scholar
  104. O’Brien JR, Etherington MD, Pashley M (1984) Intra-platelet platelet factor 4 (IP.PF4) and the heparin mobilisable pool of PF4 in health and atherosclerosis. Thromb Haemost. 51: 354–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Phillips DR, Jennings LK, Prasanna HR (1980) Ca2 + mediated association of glycoprotein G (thrombin-sensitive protein, thrombospondin) with human platelets. J Biol Chem. 255: 11629–11632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Pogliani EM, Colombi M, Cristoforetti G, Valenti G, Miradoli R, Buccianti G (1982) Beta- thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 plasma levels during haemodialysis: effect of in- dobufen. Pharmatherapeutica. 3: 127–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Porta M, Peters AM, Cousins SA, Cagliero E, Fitzpatrick ML, Kohner EM (1983) A study of platelet relevant parameters in patients with diabetic micro-angiopathy. Diabetalo- gia. 25: 21–25Google Scholar
  108. Prowse C, Pepper DS, Dawes J (1982) Prevention of the platelet alpha-granule release reaction by membrane active drugs. Thromb Res. 25: 219–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Rasi V (1979) Beta-thromboglobulin in plasma - false high values caused by platelet enrichment of the top layer of plasma during centrifugation. Thromb Res. 15: 543–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Reynders J, Rodzynek J J, Leautaud P, Delcourt A (1984) Comparison between platelet function tests in diabetic patients with special reference to beta-thromboglobulin. Acta Clin Belg. 39: 314Google Scholar
  111. Riess H, Hiller E, Reinhardt B, Brauning C (1984) Effects of BM 13.177, a new antiplatelet drug in patients with atherosclerotic disease. Thromb Res. 35: 371–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Rosove MH, Frank HJL, Haewig SSL (1984) Plasma beta-thromboglobulin, platelet factor 4, fibrinopeptide A and other hemostatic functions during improved, short-term glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 7: 174–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Rucinski B, Poggi A, James P, Holt JC, Niewiarowski S (1983) Purification of 2 heparin binding proteins from porcine platelets and their homology with human secreted platelet proteins. Blood. 61: 1072–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Saglio SD, Slayter HS (1982) Use of a radioimmunoassay to quantify thrombospondin. Blood. 59: 162–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Salter MCP, Crow MJ, Learoyd P, Rajah SM (1982) Platelet function and survival changes before and after coronary artery revascularisation: assessment of the influence of dipyridamole and acetylsalicylic acid. Haemostasis. 12: 191Google Scholar
  116. Sano T, Motomiya T, Yamazaki H (1980) Platelet release reaction in vivo in patients with ischaemic heart disease after isometric exercise and its prevention with dipyridamole. Thromb Haemost. 42: 1589–1597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Schernthaner G, Muhlhauser I, Silberbauer K (1979) ß-Thromboglobulin lowered by dipyridamole in diabetes. Lancet. 11: 748–749Google Scholar
  118. Schmidt KG, Rasmussen JW (1984) Acute platelet activation induced by smoking: in vivo and ex vivo studies in humans. Thromb Haemost. 51: 279–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Semple MJ, Al-Hasani SF, Kioy P, Savidge GF (1984) A double-blind trial of ticlopidine in sickle cell disease. Thromb Haemost. 51: 303–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Simi M, Leardi S, Castelli M, Tebano MT, Vitale M, Prantera C, Speranza V (1982) Plasmatic levels of platelet factor 4 (PF4) in Crohn’s disease. World J Surg. 6: 662Google Scholar
  121. Sinzinger H, Horsch AK, Silberbauer K (1983) The behaviour of various platelet function tests during long-term prostacyclin infusion in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Thromb Haemost. 50: 885–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Smith RC, Duncanson J, Ruckley CV, Webber RG, Allan NC, Dawes J, Bolton AE, Hunter WM, Pepper DS, Cash JD (1978) ß-Thromboglobulin and deep vein thrombosis. Thromb Haemost. 39: 338–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Sobel M, Salzman EW, Davies GC, Handin RI, Sweeney J, Ploetz J, Kurland G (1981) Circulating platelet products in unstable angina-pectoris. Circulation. 63: 300–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Steele PP (1980) Platelet suppressants inhibit release of beta-thromboglobulin during isometric exercise in coronary disease. Clin Res. 28: A214Google Scholar
  125. Strano A, Davi G (1982) Platelet release reaction, platelet sensitivity to prostacyclin and thromboxane production by platelets in hyperlipidemia. Haemostasis. 12: 87Google Scholar
  126. Suarez AJ, Levine SP, George JN (1982) Emotional stress, catecholamines and platelet activation. Clin Res. 30: A331Google Scholar
  127. Taomoto K, Asada M, Kanazawa Y, Matsumoto S (1983) Usefulness of the measurement of plasma beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) in cerebrovascular disease. Stroke. 14: 518–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Turpie AGG, Gent M, DeBoer AC, Giroux M, Kinch D, Butt R, Gunstensen J, Saerens E, Genton E (1984) Effect of suloctidil on platelet function in patients with shortened platelet survival time. Thromb Res. 35: 397–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Valles J, Aznar J, Santos MT (1982) Relationship between platelet fatty acid pattern and plasma ß thromboglobulin. Thromb Res. 27: 737–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Van Hulsteijn H, Fibbe W, Bertina R, Briet E (1982) Plasma fibrinopeptide A and beta- thromboglobulin in major bacterial infections. Thromb Haemost. 48: 247–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Van Hulsteijn H, Kolff J, Briet E, Vanderlaarse A, Bertina R (1984) Fibrinopeptide A and beta thromboglobulin in patients with angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 107: 39–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Van Oost BA, Veldhuyzen B, Timmermans APM, Sixma JJ (1983) Increased urinary ß- thromboglobulin excretion in diabetes assayed with a modified RIA kit-technique. Thromb Haemost. 49: 18–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Viero P, Cortelazzo S, Barbui T (1984) Does the ß-TG/PF4 ratio have any value in myeloproliferative diseases? Thromb Haemost. 51: 411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Violi F, Juliano L, Alessandri C, Frattaroli S, Bonavita MS (1984) Beta-thromboglobulin plasma levels in common migraine. Thromb Haemost. 51: 295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Walker ID, Davidson JF, Faichney A, Wheatley DJ, Davidson KG (1981) A double blind study of prostacyclin in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Br J Haematol. 49: 415–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Walz DA (1984) Platelet released proteins as molecular markers for the activation process. Semin Thromb Hemost. 10:270–279Google Scholar
  137. Wight TN, Raugi GJ, Mumby SM, Bornstein P (1985) Light microscopic immunolocation of thrombospondin in human tissues. J Histochem Cytochem. 33: 295–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wojciechowski J, Olausson M, Korsanbengtsen K (1983) Fibrinopeptide A, beta-throm- boglobulin and fibrin degradation products as screening test for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis. Haemostasis. 13: 254–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Woodhams BJ, Kernoff PBA (1983) The application of polyethylene glycol to radioimmunoassays used in haemostasis. Thromb Res. 29: 333–341PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. S. Pepper

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations