Advertisement

Neuroactive Substances Influencing Regenerative Processes in the Central Nervous System: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects

  • U. H. Wiese
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Neurosurgery book series (NEURO, volume 15)

Abstract

In his influential work published in 1928 under the title “Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System,” RAMÒN Y CAJAL noted: “Once development was ended, the founts of growth and regeneration of the axon dendrites dried up irrevocably. In adult centers, the nerve paths are something fixed, and immutable; everything may die, nothing may be regenerated.” (39) Approximately 50 years later BJÖRKLUND and STENEVI summarized: “It is well established that the adult mammalian brain has the capacity for sprouting, synaptogenesis, and reformation of severed connections (6).” The initial “hard-wired” concept of brain organization did not exclude recovery of function of the central nervous system; early experience of restorative events after brain ischemia resulted in the classical theories of recovery, including the strategy of behavioral compensation, diaschisis (release of uninjured tissue from a temporarily suppressed state), and vicariation (the possibility that one structure can take over another’s function), (for review, see 18). New neuroanatomical and neurophysiological techniques, including anterograde and retrograde tracing of axons and intracellular recordings, resulted in the modern concept of “neuronal plasticity.”

Keywords

Spinal Cord Sodium Bromide Spinal Cord Blood Flow Spinal Cord Contusion Callosal Projection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aguayo AJ, David S, Richardson P, Bray GM (1982) Axonal elongation in peripheral and central nervous system transplants. In: Fedoroff S, Hertz L (eds) Advances in cellular neurobiology. Academic Press, New York, pp 215–234Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aristoff PA, Johnson PD, Harrison AW (1983) Synthesis of 9-substi-tuted carbacyclin analogs. J Org Chem 48:5341–5348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Balentine JD, Spector M (1977) Calcification of axons in experimental spinal cord trauma. Ann Neurol 2:520–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bassi S, Alizzati MG, Sbacchi M, Frattola L, Massarotti M (1984) Double blind evaluation of monosialoganglioside (GM1) therapy in stroke. J Neurosci Res 12:493–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berry M, Rees L, Sievers J (1986) Regeneration of axons in the mammalian nervous system. In: Gilad GM, Gorio A, Kreutzberg GW (eds) Processes of recovery from neural trauma. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Björklund A, Stenevi U (1979) Regeneration of monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons in the mammalian central nervous system. Physiol Rev 59:62–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clemente CD (1958) The regeneration of peripheral nerves inserted into the cerebral cortex and the healing of cerebral lesions. J Comp Neurol 109:123–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Clemente CD, Windle WF (1954) Regeneration of severed nerve fibers in the spinal cord of the adult cat. J Comp Neurol 101: 691–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cotman CW (1984) Growth and inhibitory factors in the CNS. Central nervous system trauma 1:AddendumGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cotman CW, Lynch G (1976) Reactive synaptogenesis in the adult nervous system: The effects of partial deafferentiation on new synapse formation. In: Barondes SH (ed) Neuronal recognition. Plenum Press, New York, pp 69–108Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cusick CG, Lund RD (1982) Modification of visual callosal projections in rats. J Comp Neurol 212:385–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Faden AJ, Jacobs TP (1983) Dynorphin induces partially reversible paraplegia in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol 91:321–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Faden AI, Jacobs TD (1985) Effect of TRH analogs on neurological recovery after experimental spinal trauma. Neurology 35:1331–1334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Faden AI, Jacobs TP, Holaday JW (1981) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone improves neurologic recovery after spinal trauma in cats. N Engl J Med 305:1063–1067PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Faden AI, Molineaux CJ, Rosenberger JG, Jacobs TP, Cox BM (1985) Endogenous opioid immunoreactivity in rat spinal cord following traumatic injury. Ann Neurol 17:386–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fass B, Ramirez JJ (1984) Effect of ganglioside treatment on lesion-induced behavioral impairments and sprouting in the CNS. J Neurosci Res 12:445–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Feringa E, Kowalski TF, Vahlsing HL, Frye RA (1979) Enzyme treatment of spinal cord transected rats. Ann Neurol 5:203–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Finger S, Stein DG (1982) Brain damage and recovery — research and clinical perspectives. Academic Press, New York London ParisGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Flamm ES, Young W, Demopoulos HB, De Crescito V, Tomasula JJ (1982) Experimental spinal cord injury: treatment with naloxone. Neurosurgery 10:221–231Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goldstein A, Tachibana S, Lowney LI, Hunkapiller M, Hood L (1979) Dynorphin-(1–13), an extraordinary potent opioid peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:6666–6670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gorio A, Janigro D, Di Gregorio F, Ferrari G, Jonsson G, Vyskocil F, Zanoni R (1986) Gangliosides enhance mechanisms of recovery from neural damage by a dual mechanism. In: Gilad GM, Gorio A, Kreutzberg GW (eds) Processes of recovery from neural trauma. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gorman RR, Johnson RA, Spilman CH, Aiken JW (1983) Inhibition of platelet-thromboxane A2-synthetase activity by sodium-5-(3′-pyridi-nyl-methyl) benzofuran-2-carboxylate. Prostaglandins 26:325–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hall ED, Wolf DL, Braughler JM (1986) Pathophysiology, consequences and pharmacological prevention of posttraumatic CNS ischemia. In: Gilad GM, Gorio A, Kreutzberg GW (eds) Processes of recovery from neural trauma. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Happel RD, Smith KP, Banik NL, Powers JM, Hogan EL, Balentine JD (1981) Ca-accumulation in experimental spinal cord trauma. Brain Res 211:476–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harvey J, Srebnick H (1967) Locomotor activity and axon regeneration following spinal cord compression in rats treated with L-thyroxin. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 26:666–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Holaday JW, Damato RJ, Faden AI (1981) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone improves cardiovascular function and hemorrhagic shock. Science 213:216–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hsu CY, Halushka PV, Hogan EL, Banic NL, Lee WA, Perot PL (1983) Altered synthesis of thromboxane and prostacyclin in spinal cord contusion. Neurology 33 (Suppl 2):146Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jacobson M (1978) Developmental neurobiology, 2nd edn. Plenum Press, New York London, pp 199–200Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Johnson HG, Mc Nee ML, Bach MK, Smith HW (1983) The activity of a new, novel inhibition of leukotriene synthesis in rhesus monkey ascaris reactors. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 70:169–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jonsson HT, Daniel HB (1976) Altered levels of PGF in cat spinal cord tissue following traumatic injury. Prostaglandins 11:51–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Joó F, Dames W, Wolff JR (1979) Effect of prolonged sodium bromide administration of the fine structure of dendrites in the superior cervical ganglion of adult rat. In: Cuénod M, Kreutzberg GW, Bloom FE (eds) Development and chemical specifity of neurons. Prog Brain Res 51. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Karpiak SE, Mahadik SP (1984) Reduction of cerebral edema with GM1-ganglioside. J Neurosci Res 12:485–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ledeen RW (1984) Biology of gangliosides: neuritogenic and neuro-notrophic properties. J Neurosci Res 12:147–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liu CN, Cambers WW (1958) Intraspinal sprouting of dorsal root axons. Arch Neurol Psychiat 79:46–61Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Matinian LA, Adreasian AS (1973) Enzyme therapy in organic lesions of the spinal cord. Brain Information Service, UCLA, pp 162–169 (transi.)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nathaniel EJ (1983) Cytological effects of triiodthyronine on dorsal root regeneration in adult rat. Exp Neurol 80:672–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Purpura DP, Suzuki K (1976) Distortion of neuronal geometry and formation of aberrant synapses in neuronal storage disease. Brain Res 116:1–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Raisman G (1969) Neuronal plasticity in the septal nuclei of the adult brain. Brain Res 14:25–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ramòn y Cajal S (1928) Degeneration and regeneration of the nervous system. Oxford University Press, London, p 750Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Reier PJ, Stensaas LJ, Guth L (1983) The astrocytic scar as an impediment to regeneration in the central nervous system. In: Kao CC, Bunge RP, Reier PJ (eds) Spinal cord reconstruction. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Riker WK, Montoya G (1978) Hyperpolarization and synaptic facilitation by sodium bromide in frog, sympathetic ganglion. In: Proc Int Congr Pharmacol., ParisGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schneider GE, Jhavari SR (1974) Neuroanatomical correlates of spared or altered function after brain lesions in the newborn hamster. In: Stein DG, Rosen JJ, Butters N (eds) Plasticity and recovery of function in the central nervous system. Academic Press, New York, pp 65–110Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stensaas LJ, Burgess PR, Horch KW (1979) Regenerating dorsal root axons are blocked by spinal cord astrocytes. Soc Neurosci abst 5: 684Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Steward O (1986) Protein synthesis under dendritic spine synapses during lesion-induced synaptogenesis: evidence for regulation of reinnervation by the target cell. In: Gilad GM, Gorio A, Kreutzberg GW (eds) Processes of recovery from neural trauma. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tator CH, van der Jagt HC (1980) The effect of exogenous thyroid hormones on functional recovery of the rat after acute spinal cord compression injury. J Neurosurg 53:381–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tsukahara N (1978) Synaptic plasticity in the red nucleus. In: Cotman CW (ed) Neuronal plasticity. Raven Press, New York, pp 113–130Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wiese UH, Wolff JR (1983) Development of callosal projections in albino rat and its modulation by enucleation and eyelid suture. Neurosci Lett Suppl 14:403Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Windle WF, Clemente CD, Chambers WW (1952) Inhibition of formation of glial barrier as a means of permitting a peripheral nerve to grow into the brain. J Comp Neurol 96:359–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wolff JR, Wagner GP (1983) Self-organization in synaptogenesis: interaction between the formation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. In: Basar E, Flohr H, Haken H, Mandell AJ (eds) Synergetics of the brain. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Young W, Flamm ES, Demopoulus HB, Tomasula JJ, De Crescito V (1981) Naloxone ameliorates posttraumatic ischemia in experimental spinal contusion. J Neurosurg 55:209–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. H. Wiese
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurochirurgische AbteilungKrankenhaus mit Rehabilitationsklinik für Rückenmarksverletzte Hohe WarteBayreuthGermany

Personalised recommendations