Effects of Leukocytes on Microvascular Rheology
The behavior of leukocytes [WBCs] in the microcirculation has been investigated by many investigators since the classical observations of Dutrochet . Early efforts to quantitate leukocyte flow behavior were made by Fahraeus  and Vejlens . At normal flow velocities, few white cells are observed in the smaller capillaries [6, 8, 19, 20]; however, at the slower flow states such as in inflammation or hypotension [1, 2, 3, 15, 20], they are often seen in capillaries and large numbers are found in postcapillary venules. In capillaries, particularly in the smaller microvessels 4–12 µm in diameter, leukocytes tend to flow axially  and maintain their spherical configuration; margination does not appear to occur. In postcapillary venules, margination is typical [2, 4, 8, 16, 19], appearing to relate to the divergence of flow, the slower rate of flow, and aggregation of erythrocytes. The more deformable erythrocytes appear to displace white cells toward the venule wall in the postcapillary venule [17, 19]. Proximity to the wall and stasis predispose to adherence to the vessel wall and potential for obstruction of flow.
KeywordsFiltration Ischemia Leukemia Luminal Tate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Bagge U (1975) White blood cell rheology. Experimental studies on the rheological properties of white blood cells in man and rabbit and in an in vitro micro-flow system. Dissertation, University of GöteborgGoogle Scholar
- 4.Dutrochet MH (1824) Recherches anatomiques et physiologiques sur Ia structure intime des animaux et des vegetaux, et sur leur motilite. Bailliere et Fils, ParisGoogle Scholar
- 6.Fahraeus R (1929) The suspension stability of blood. Physiol Rev 9: 241–274Google Scholar
- 8.Goldsmith HL, Spain S (1984) Radial distribution of white cells in tube flow. In: Meiselman H, Lichtman MA, La Celie PL (eds) White cell mechanics: basic science and clinical aspects. Alan R Liss, New York, pp 131–146Google Scholar
- 9.Grant L (1973) The sticking and emigration of white blood cells in inflammation. In: Zweifach BW, Grant L, McCluskey RT (eds) The inflammatory process vol II. Academic Press, New York, pp 205–249Google Scholar
- 10.Hochmuth RM, Mohandas N, Spaeth EE, Williamson JR, Blackshear PL, Johnson DW (1972) Surface adhesion, deformation and detachment at low shear of red cells and white cells. Trans Amer Soc Art Int Organs Trans XVIII: 325–334Google Scholar
- 11.La Celie PL, Bush RW, Smith BD (1982) Viscoelastic properties of normal and pathologic human granulocytes and lymphocytes. In: Bagge U, Born GVR, Gaehtgens P (eds) White blood cells: morphology and rheology as related to function. Marinus Nijhoff. The Hague/ Boston, pp 38–45Google Scholar
- 13.Nobis U, Gaehtgens P (1981) Rheology of white blood cells during blood flow through narrow tubes. Bibl Anat 20: 211–214Google Scholar
- 14.Nobis U, Pries AR, Gaehtgens P (1982) Rheological mechanisms contributing to WBC-margination. In: Bagge U, Born GVR, Gaehtgens P (eds) White blood cells: morphology and rheology as related to function. Marinus Nijhoff, The Hague/Boston, pp 57–65Google Scholar
- 19.Vejlens G (1938) The distribution of leukocytes in the vascular system. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand [Suppl]33: 11–239Google Scholar
- 20.Zweifach BW (1973) Microvascular aspects of tissue injury. In: Zweifach BW, Grant L, McCluskey RT (eds) The inflammatory process, vol 11. New York, Academic Press, pp 3–46Google Scholar