Scientific Basis of Acupuncture

  • B. Pomeranz

Abstract

In this chapter we review 228 of modern scientific studies on acupuncture. As most research has focused on acupuncture analgesia (AA) this will be the major topic. Two main conclusions are drawn: first that AA is effective in treating chronic pain (working better than placebo), and second that the neurological mechanisms of AA are rapidly becoming apparent. We conclude that acupuncture activates small myelinated nerve fibres in the muscle, which send impulses to the spinal cord, and then activates three centres (spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary-hypothalamus) to cause analgesia. The spinal cord centre uses enkephalin and dynorphin to block incoming painful information. The midbrain centre uses enkephalin to activate the raphe descending system which inhibits spinal cord pain transmission using the monoamines (serotonin and norepinephrine). The third centre is the hypothalamus-pituitary, which releases beta endorphin into the blood and cerebrospinal fluid to cause analgesia at a distance. Thus all three endorphins (enkephalin, beta endorphin, and dynorphin) have a role in AA, and two monamines (serotonin and norepinephrine) are also involved. When high frequency low intensity stimulation is used a non-endorphin type of analgesia occurs. Unfortunately, much less research has been done into the other claims made in addition for acupuncture, and these will be given less coverage (Sects. 1.3 and 1.4). Finally, the specificity of acupuncture points will be discussed in Section 1.5.

Keywords

Placebo Neurol Halothane Atropine Rheumatol 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abrams SE, Reynolds AC, Cusick JF (1981) Failure of naloxone to reverse analgesia from TENS in patients with chronic pain. Anesth Analg 60: 81–84Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahonen E, Hakumaki M, et al (1983) Acupuncture and physiotherapy in the treatment of myogenic headache patients: Pain relief and EMG activity. In: Bonica JJ (ed) Advances in pain research and therapy, vol 5. Raven Press, New York, pp 571–576Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andersson SA (1979) Pain control by sensory stimulation. In: Bonica JJ (ed) Advances in pain research and therapy, vol 3. Raven Press, New York, pp 561–585Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anonymous (Shanghai Inst Physiol) (1973) Acupuncture sensations and electromyogram of the needled point in patients with nervous diseases, [in Chinese] Chin Med J 53:619–622Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anonymous (Shanghai Inst Physiol) (1973) Electromyographic activity produced locally by acupuncture manipulation, [in Chinese] Chin Med J 53: 532–535Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Araki T, Ito K, Kurosawa M, Sato A (1984) Responses of adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and catecholamine secretion to cutaneous stimulation in anesthetized rats. Neuroscience 12: 289–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barber J, Mayer DJ (1977) Evaluation of the efficacy and neural mechanism of a hypnotic analgesia procedure in experimental and clinical dental pain. Pain 4: 41–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baron A, Shuster L, et al (1975) Mouse strain variations of opiate receptors. Life Sci 17: 633–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Basbaum AI, Fields HL (1984) Endogenous pain control systems: brainstem spinal pathways and endorphin circuitry. Annu Rev Neurosci 7: 309–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Becker RO, Reichmanis M et al (1976) Electrophysiological correlates of acupuncture points and meridians. Psychoenergetic Systems 1:195–212Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beecher HK (1955) Placebo analgesia in human volunteers. J Am Med Assoc 159: 1602–1606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berger D, Nolte D (1975) Acupuncture — has it a demonstrable bronchospasmolytic effect in bronchial asthma? Med Klin 70: P1827–1830Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bergland RM, Page RB (1979) Pituitary-brain vascular relations. Science 204:18–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bloom F, Guillemin R et al (1978) Neurons containing β-endorphin in rat brain exist separately from those containing enkephalin: immunocytochemical studies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:1591–1595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Borgens RB, Vanable JW, Jaffe LF (1979) Small artificial currents enhances Xenopus limb regeneration. J Exp Zool 207: 217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bossut DF, Leshin LB, Stomberg MW (1983) Plasma Cortisol and beta-endorphin in horses subjected to electro-acupuncture for cutaneous analgesia. Peptides 4: 501–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boureau F, Willer JC, Yamaguchi Y (1979) Abolition par la naloxone de l’effect inhibiteur d’une stimulation électrique péripherique sur la composante tardive du reflex clignement. EEG Clin Neurophysiol 47: 322–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chan SHH (1984) What is being stimulated in acupuncture: evaluation of existence of a specific substrate. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 8: 25–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chan SHH, Fung SJ (1975) Suppression of polysynaptic reflex by electro-acupuncture and a possible underlying presynaptic mechanism in the spinal cord of the cat. Exp Neurol 48: 336–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chang HT (1980) Neurophysiological interpretation of acupuncture analgesia. Endeavour 4:92–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chapman CR, Benedetti C (1977) Analgesia following TENS and its partial reversal by a narcotic antagonist. Life Sci 21:1645–1648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chapman CR, Chen AC, Bonica JJ (1977) Effects of intrasegmental electrical acupuncture on dental pain: evaluation by threshold estimation and sensory decision theory. Pain 3: 213–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chapman CR, Colpitis YM et al (1980) Evoked potential assessment of acupuncture analgesia: attempted reversal with naloxone. Pain 9:183–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chapman R, Benedetti C et al (1983) Naloxone fails to reverse pain thresholds elevated by acupuncture: Acupuncture analgesia reconsidered. Pain 16:13–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Charlton G (1982) Naloxone reverses electroacupuncture analgesia in experimental dental pain. South Afr J Sci 78: 80–81Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen GS (1977) Therapeutic effect of acupuncture for chronic pain. Am J Chin Med 5: 45–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cheng ACK (1975) The treatment of headaches employing acupuncture. Am J Chin Med 3: 181–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cheng R, Pomeranz B (1979) Correlation of genetic differences in endorphin systems with analgesic effects of D-amino acids in mice. Brain Res 177: 583–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cheng R, Pomeranz B (1979) Electroacupuncture analgesia is mediated by stereospecific opiate receptors and is reversed by antagonists of type 1 receptors. Life Sci 26: 631–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cheng R, Pomeranz B (1980) Electroacupuncture analgesia could be mediated by at least two pain-relieving mechanisms: endorphin and non-endorphin systems. Life Sci 25: 1957–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cheng R, Pomeranz B (1980) A combined treatment with D-amino acids and electroacupuncture produces a greater anesthesia than either treatment alone: naloxone reverses these effects. Pain 8: 231–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cheng R, Pomeranz B (1981) Monoamineergic mechanisms of electroacupuncture analgesia. Brain Res 215: 77–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cheng R, Pomeranz B (1986) Electrotherapy of chronic musculoskeletal pain: comparison of electroacupuncture acupuncture-like TENS. Clin J Pain (in press)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cheng RS, Pomeranz B, Yu G (1979) Dexamethasone partially reduces and 2% saline treatment abolishes electroacupuncture analgesia: these findings implicate pituitary endorphins. Life Sci 24:1481–1486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cheng R, Pomeranz B et al (1980) Electroacupuncture elevates blood Cortisol levels in naive horses: sham treatment has no effect. Int J Neurosci 10: 95–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cheng R, Pomeranz B, Yu G (1980) Electroacupuncture treatment of morphine dependent mice reduces signs of withdrawal without showing cross tolerance. Eur J Pharmacol 68: 477–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chiang CY, Chang CT et al (1973) Peripheral afferent pathway for acupuncture analgesia. Sci Sin 16: 210–217Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chou J, Tang J, Yang HY, Costa E (1984) Action of peptidase inhibitors on methionine5-enkephalin-arginine6-phenylalanine7 (YGGFMRF) and methionine5-enkephalin (YGGFM) metabolism and on electroacupuncture antinociception. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 230:349–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chung JM, Willis WD et al (1983) Prolonged naloxone reversible inhibition of the flexion reflex in the cat. Pain 15: 35–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Clement-Jones V, Wen HL et al (1980) Increased beta-endorphin but not met-enkephalin levels in human CSF after acupuncture for recurrent pain. Lancet II: 946–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 40a.
    Clement-Jones V, Wen HL et al (1979) Acupuncture in heroin addicts: changes in metenkephalin and beta endorphin in blood and CSF. Lancet II: 380–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    Clifford DH, Lee MO, Lee DC (1977) Cardiovascular effects of atropine on acupuncture, needling with electrostimulation at Tsu San Li (St36) in dogs. Am J Vet Res 38: 845–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Coan RM, Wong G et al (1980) The acupuncture treatment of low back pain: a randomized controlled study. Am J Chin Med 8:181–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Coan RM, Wong G, Coan PL (1982) The acupuncture treatment of neck pain: a randomized controlled study. Am J Chin Med 9: 326–332Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    Dowson DI, Lewith GT, Machin D (1985) The effects of acupuncture versus placebo in the treatment of headache. Pain 21: 35–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Du HJ, Chao YF (1976) Localization of central structures involved in descending inhibitory effect of acupuncture on viscero-somatic discharges. Sci Sin 19:137–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Du HJ, Chao YF (1979) Effect of destruction or stimulation of locus coeruleus on inhibition of viscero-somatic reflex activities. Acta Physiol Sin 31:153–162Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Dung HC (1984) Anatomical features contributing to the formation of acupuncture points. Am J Acupunct 12:139–143Google Scholar
  49. 48.
    Edelist G, Gross AE, Langer F (1976) Treatment of low back pain with acupuncture. Can Anaesth Soc J 23: 303–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Ehrenpreis S (1985) Analgesic properties of enkephalinase inhibitors: animal and human studies. Prog Clin Biol Res 192: 363–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Facchinetti F, Nappi G et al (1981) Primary headaches: reduced circulating beta-lipotropin and beta-endorphin levels with impaired reactivity to acupuncture. Cephalalgia 1:195–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Facchinetti F, Sandrini G et al (1984) Concomitant increase in nociceptive flexion reflex threshold and plasma opioids following transcutaneous nerve stimulation. Pain 19: 295–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Fox EJ, Melzack R (1976) Transcutaneous electrical stimulation and acupuncture comparison of treatment for low back pain. Pain 2:141–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Fu TC, Halenda SP, Dewey WL (1980) The effect of hypophysectomy on acupuncture analgesia in the mouse. Brain Res 202: 33–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Fujishita M, Hisamtsu M, Takeshige (1986) Difference between non-acupuncture point stimulation and AA after D-phenylalanine treatment. [In Japanese (English Abstract)] In: Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based animal experiments. Showa University Press, Tokyo, p 638Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    Fung DTH, Chan SHH et al (1975) Electroacupuncture suppression of jaw depression reflex elicited by dentalgia in rabbits. Exp Neurol 47: 367–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Fung SJ, Chan SHH (1976) Primary afferent depolarization evoked by electroacupuncture in the lumbar cord of the cat. Exp Neurol 52:168–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Gaw AC, Chang LW, Shaw LC (1975) Efficacy of acupuncture on osteoarthritic pain. N Engl J Med 21: 375–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Ghia J, Mao W, Toomey T, Gregg J (1976) Acupuncture and chronic pain mechanisms. Pain 2:285–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Godfrey CM, Morgen P (1978) A controlled trial of the theory of acupuncture in. musculoskeletal pain. J Rheumatol 5:121–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Goldstein A (1979) Endorphins and pain: a critical review. In: Beers RF (ed) Mechanisms of pain and analgesic compounds. Raven Press, New York, pp 249–262Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    Goldstein A, Hilgard EF (1975) Failure of the opiate antagonist naloxone to modify hypnotic analgesia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72: 2041–2043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Gunn CC, Milbrandt WE et al (1980) Dry needling of muscle motor points for chronic low-back pain. Spine 5: 279–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Ha H, Tan EC, Fukunaga H, Aochi O (1981) Naloxone reversal of acupuncture analgesia in the monkey. Exp Neurol 73: 298–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Hachisu M, Takeshige C et al (1986) Abolishment of individual variation in effectiveness of acupuncture analgesia. [In Japanese (English abstract)] In: Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based on animal experiments. Showa University Press, Tokyo, p 549Google Scholar
  66. 65.
    Hammond DL (1985) Pharmacology of central pain modulating networks (biogenic amines and nono’pioid analgesics). In: Fields H et al (eds) Advances in pain research and therapy. Raven Press, New York, pp 499–511Google Scholar
  67. 66.
    Han CS, Chou PH, Lu CC, Lu LH et al (1979) The role of central 5-HT in acupuncture analgesia. Sci Sin 22: 91–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Han JS, Terenius L (1982) Neurochemical basis of acupuncture analgesia. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 22:193–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Han JS, Xie GX (1984) Dynorphin: important mediator for electroacupuncture analgesia in the spinal cord of the rabbit. Pain 18: 367–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Han JS, Guan XM, Shu JM (1979) Study of central norepinephrine turnover rate during acupuncture analgesia in the rat. [in Chinese] Acta Physiol Sin 31:11–19Google Scholar
  71. 70.
    Han JS, Li SJ, Tang J (1981) Tolerance to acupuncture and its cross tolerance to morphine. Neuropharmacology 20: 593–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Han JS, Ding XZ, Fan SG (1985) Is cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) a candidate for endogenous antiopioid substrates? Neuropeptides 5: 399–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Han JS, Xie GX, Terenius L et al (1982) Enkephalin and beta endorphin as mediators of electroacupuncture analgesia in rabbits: an antiserum microinjection study. In: Costa E (ed) Regulatory peptides: from molecular biology to function. Raven Press, New York, pp 369–377Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    Hansen PE, Hansen JH (1983) Acupuncture treatment of chronic facial pain: a controlled cross-over trial. Headache 23: 66–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Hayes R, Price DD, Dubner R (1977) Naloxone antagonism as evidence for narcotic mechanisms. Science 196: 600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    He L, Lu R, Zhuang S et al (1985) Possible involvement of opioid peptides of caudate nucleus in acupuncture analgesia. Pain 23: 83–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Herget HF, L’Allemand H et al (1976) Combined acupuncture analgesia and controlled respiration. A new modified method of anesthesia in open heart surgery. Anaesthesist 25: 223–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Hishida F, Takeshige C et al (1986) Differentiation of acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point explorated by evoked potential of the central nervous system and its correlation with analgesia inhibitory system. [In Japanese (English abstract)] In: Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based on animal experiments. Showa University Press, Tokyo, p 43Google Scholar
  79. 78.
    Hishida F, Takeshige C et al (1986) Effects of D-phenylalanine on individal variation of analgesia and on analgesia inhibitory system in their separated experimental procedures. [In Japanese (English abstract)] In: Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based on animal experiments. Showa University Press, Tokyo, p 51Google Scholar
  80. 79.
    Hoffmann P, Thoren P (1986) Long-lasting cardiovascular depression induced by acupuncture-like stimulation of the sciatic nerve in unanaesthetized rats. Effects of arousal and type of hypertension. Acta Physiol Scand 127:119–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Illingsworth CM, Barker CT (1980) Measurement of electrical currents emerging during the regeneration of amputated finger tips in children. Clin Phys Physiol Meas 1: 87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Jaffe L, Barker AT et al (1982) The glabrous epidermis of cavies contains a powerful battery. Am J Physiol 242: R358–R366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Jensen LB, Meisen B, Jensen SB (1979) Effect of acupuncture on headache measured by reduction in number of attacks and use of drugs. Scand J Dent Res 87: 373–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Kaada B, Jorum E, Sagvolden T (1979) Analgesia induced by trigeminal nerve stimulation (electroacupuncture) abolished by nuclei raphe lesions in rats. Acupunct Electrother Res 4: 221–234Google Scholar
  85. 84.
    Kim KC, Yount RA (1974) The effect of acupuncture on migraine headache. Am J Chin Med 2: 407–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Kiser RS, Khatam MJ et al (1983) Acupuncture relief of chronic pain syndrome correlates with increased plasma met-enkephalin concentrations. Lancet II: 1394–1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Kobori M, Mera H, Takeshige C (1986) Nature of acupuncture point and non-point stimulation produced analgesia after lesion of analgesia inhibitory system. [In Japanese (English abstract)] In: Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based on animal experiments. Showa University Press, Tokyo, p 598Google Scholar
  88. 87.
    Kroenig R, Oleson TD (1984) Rapid narcotic detoxification in chronic pain patients treated with auricular electroacupuncture and naloxone. Int J Addict 20: 725–740Google Scholar
  89. 88.
    Lagerweij E, Van Ree J et al (1984) The twitch in horses: a variant of acupuncture. Science 225:1172–1173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Laitinen J (1975) Acupuncture for migraine prophylaxis: a prospective clinical study with six months follow-up. Am J Chin Med 3: 271–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Laitinen J (1976) Acupuncture and transcutaneous electric stimulation in the treatment of chronic sacrolumbalgia and ischialgia. Am J Chin Med 4:169–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 90a.
    Le Bars D, Besson JM et al (1979) Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC): II. Lack of effect on non-convergent neurones, supraspinal involvement and theoretical implications. Pain 6: 305–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 91.
    Lee DC, Clifford DH et al (1979) Can naloxone inhibit the cardiovascular effect of acupuncture? Can Anaesth Soc J 26: 410–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 92.
    Lee Peng CH, Yang MMP et al (1978) Endorphin release: a possible mechanism of AA. Comp Med East West 6: 57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 93.
    Lee PK, Andersen TW et al (1975) Treatment of chronic pain with acupuncture. J Am Med Assoc 232:1133–1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 94.
    Lee SC, Yin SJ, Lee ML, Tsai WJ (1982) Effects of acupuncture on serum Cortisol level and dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity in normal Chinese. Am J Chin Med 10: 62–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 95.
    Leung PC (1979) Treatment of low back pain with acupuncture. Am J Chin Med 7: 372–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 96.
    Lewith GT, Machin D (1983) On the evaluation of the clinical effects of acupuncture. Pain 16:111–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 97.
    Lewith GT, Field J, Machin D (1983) Acupuncture compared with placebo in post-herpetic pain. Pain 17: 361–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 98.
    Liao SJ (1978) Recent advances in the understanding of acupuncture. Yale J Biol Med 51: 55–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 99.
    Liao YY, Seto K, Saito H et al (1979) Effect of acupuncture on adrenocortical hormone production: variation in the ability for adrenocortical hormone production in relation to the duration of acupuncture stimulation. Am J Chin Med 7: 362–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 100.
    Lim TW, Loh T, Kranz H, Scott D (1977) Acupuncture effect on normal subjects. Med J Aust 26: 440–442Google Scholar
  103. 101.
    Loh L, Nathan PW et al (1984) Acupuncture versus medical treatment for migraine and muscle tension headaches. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 47: 333–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 102.
    Low SA (1974) Acupuncture and heroin withdrawal. Med J Aust 2: 341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 103.
    Loy TT (1983) Treatment of cervical spondylosis. Med J Aust 2: 32–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 104.
    Lu GW (1983) Characteristics of afferent fiber innervation on acupuncture point zusanli. Am J Physiol 245: R606–R612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 105.
    Lung CH, Sun AC, Tsao CJ et al (1978) An observation of the humoral factor in acupuncture analgesia in rats. Am J Chin Med 2: 203–205Google Scholar
  108. 106.
    Lynn B, Perl ER (1977) Failure of acupuncture to produce localized analgesia. Pain 3: 339–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 107.
    Macdonald AJR, Macrae KD et al (1983) Superficial acupuncture in the relief of chronic low back pain. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 65: 44–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 108.
    Madden J, Akil H, Barchas JD et al (1977) Stress induced parallel changes in central opioid levels and pain responsiveness in rat. Nature 265: 358–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 109.
    Malizia F, Paolucci D et al (1979) Electroacupuncture and peripheral beta-endorphin and ACTH levels. Lancet II: 535–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 110.
    Man PL, Chuang MY (1980) Acupuncture in methadone withdrawal. Int J Addict 15: 921–926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 111.
    Martelete M, Fiori AM (1985) Comparative study of the analgesic effect of transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TNS), electroacupuncture (EA), and meperidine in the treatment of postoperative pain. Acupunct Electrother Res 10:183–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 112.
    Marx JL (1977) Analgesia: how the body inhibits pain perception. Science 196: 471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 113.
    Masala A, Satta G, Alagna S et al (1983) Suppression of electroacupuncture (EA)-induced beta-endorphin and ACTH release by hydrocortisone in man. Absence of effects on EA-induced anaesthesia. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 103: 469–472Google Scholar
  116. 114.
    Matsumoto T, Levy B, Ambruso V (1974) Clinical evaluation of acupuncture. Am Surg 40: 400–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 115.
    Mayer DJ, Watkins LR (1984) Multiple endogenous opiate and non-opiate analgesia systems. In: Kruger L (ed) Advances in pain research and therapy, vol 6. Raven Press, New York, pp 253–276Google Scholar
  118. 116.
    Mayer DJ, Price DD, Raffii A (1977) Antagonism of acupuncture analgesia in man by the narcotic antagonist naloxone. Brain Res 121: 368–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 117.
    McCarroll GD, Rowley BA (1979) An investigation of the existence of electrically located acupuncture points. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 26:177–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 118.
    Mcdevitt L, Fortner P, Pomeranz B (1986) Application of weak electric field to the hindpaw enhances sciatic motor nerve regeneration in the adult rat. Brain Res (in press)Google Scholar
  121. 119.
    McLennan H, Gilfillan K, Heap Y (1977) Some pharmacological observations on the analgesia induced by acupuncture. Pain 3: 229–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 120.
    Melzack R (1984) Acupuncture and related forms of folk medicine. In: Wall PD, Melzack R (eds) Textbook of pain. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 691–701Google Scholar
  123. 121.
    Melzack R, Katz J (1984) Auriculotherapy fails to relieve chronic pain. JAMA 251: 1041–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 122.
    Melzack R, Wall PD (1965) Pain mechanism: a new theory. Science 150:971–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 123.
    Melzack R, Stillwell DM, Fox EJ (1977) Trigger points and acupuncture points for pain: correlations and implications. Pain 3: 3–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 124.
    Mezey E, de Weid D et al (1978) Evidence for pituitary-brain transport of a behaviourally potent ACTH analogue. Life Sci 22: 831–838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 125.
    Mizuno T (1986) The nature of acupuncture point investigation by evoked potential from the dorsal periaqueductal central grey in acupuncture afferent pathway. [In Japanese (English summary)] In: Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based on animal experiments. Showa University Press, Tokyo, p 425Google Scholar
  128. 126.
    Murai M, Takeshige C et al (1986) Correlation between individual variations in effectiveness of acupuncture analgesia and that in contents of brain endogenous morphine-like factors. [In Japanese (English summary)] In: Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based on animal experiments. Showa University Press, Tokyo, p 542Google Scholar
  129. 127.
    Ng LK, Donthill TC, et al (1975) Modification of morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats following transauricular electrostimulation. Biol Psychiatry 10: 575–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 128.
    Nakatani Y, Yamashita K (1977) Ryodoraku acupuncture. Ryodoraku Research Institute, OsakaGoogle Scholar
  131. 129.
    Nappi G, Faccinetti F et al (1982) Different releasing effects of traditional manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture on propiocortin-related peptides. Acupunct Electrother Res Int J 7:93–103Google Scholar
  132. 130.
    Nogier PFM (1972) Treatise of auriculotherapy. Moulin-les-Metz, Maisonneuve, FranceGoogle Scholar
  133. 131.
    Noodergraaf, Silage D (1973) Electroacupuncture. IEEE Trans Biochem Eng 20:364–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 132.
    Nuccitelli R (1986) Ionic currents in development. (39 papers by various authors) Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  135. 133.
    Oleson TD, Kroenig RJ, Bresler DE (1980) An experimental evaluation of auricular diagnosis: the somatotopic mapping of musculoskeletal pain at acupuncture points. Pain 8: 217–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 134.
    Patel N, Poo MM (1982) Orientation of neurite growth by extracellular electric fields. J Neurosci 2: 483–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 135.
    Patterson MA (1974) Electroacupuncture in alcohol and drug addictions. Clin Med 81:9–13Google Scholar
  138. 136.
    Peets J, Pomeranz B (1985) Acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation analgesia is influenced by spinal cord endorphins but not serotonin: an intrathecal pharmacological study. In: Fields H et al (eds) Advances in pain research and therapy, Raven Press, New York, pp 519–525Google Scholar
  139. 137.
    Peets J, Pomeranz B (1986) Studies of suppression of nocifensive reflexes using tail flick electromyograms and intrathecal drugs in barbiturate anaethetized rats. Brain Res (submitted)Google Scholar
  140. 138.
    Peets J, Pomeranz B (1978) CXBX mice deficient in opiate receptors show poor electroacupuncture analgesia. Nature 273: 675–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 139.
    Pert A, Dionne R, Ng L, Pert C et al (1981) Alterations in rat central nervous system endorphins following transauricular electroacupuncture. Brain Res 224: 83–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 140.
    Pertovaara A, Kemppainen P et al (1982) Dental analgesia produced by non-painful, low-frequency stimulation is not influenced by stress or reversed by naloxone. Pain 13: 379–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 141.
    Petrie JP, Langley GB (1983) Acupuncture in the treatment of chronic cervical pain. A pilot study. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1: 33–335Google Scholar
  144. 142.
    Pin Luo C, Takeshige C et al (1986) Inhibited region by analgesia inhibitory system in acupuncture non-point stimulation produced analgesia. [In Japanese (English summary)] In: Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based on animal experiments. In: Takeshige C (ed) Showa University Press, Tokyo, p 613Google Scholar
  145. 143.
    Pomeranz B (1981) Neural mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia. In: Lipton S (ed) Persistent pain, vol 3. Academic Press, New York, pp 241–257Google Scholar
  146. 144.
    Pomeranz B (1985) Relation of stress-induced analgesia to acupuncture analgesia. In: Kelly J (ed) Stress-induced analgesia. Ann NY Acad Sci: 444–447Google Scholar
  147. 145.
    Pomeranz B (1986) Effects of applied DC fields on sensory nerve sprouting and motor-nerve regeneration in adult rats. In: Nuccitelli R (ed) Ionic currents in development. Liss, New York p 251–258Google Scholar
  148. 146.
    Pomeranz B (1986) Acupuncture neurophysiology. In: Adelman G (ed) Encyclopedia of neuroscience. Birkhauser, Boston (in press)Google Scholar
  149. 147.
    Pomeranz B, Bibic L (1986) Electroacupuncture suppresses a nociceptive reflex: naltrexone prevents but does not reverse this effect. Brain Res (submitted)Google Scholar
  150. 148.
    Pomeranz B, Cheng R (1979) Suppression of noxious responses in single neurons of cat spinal cord by electroacupuncture and its reversal by the opiate antagonist naloxone. Exp Neurol 64: 327–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 149.
    Pomeranz B, Chiu D (1976) Naloxone blocks acupuncture analgesia and causes hyperalgesia: endorphin is implicated. Life Sci 19:1757–1762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 150.
    Pomeranz B, Nyguyen P (1986) Intrathecal diazepam suppresses nociceptive reflexes and potentiates electroacupuncture effects in pentobarbital rats. Neurosci Lett (submitted)Google Scholar
  153. 151.
    Pomeranz B, Paley D (1979) Electroacupuncture hyalgesia is mediated by afferent nerve impulses: an electrophysiological study in mice. Exp Neurol 66: 398–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 152.
    Pomeranz B, Warma N (1986) Electroacupuncture suppression of a nociceptive reflex is potentiated by two repeated electroacupuncture treatments: the first opioid effect postulates a second non opioid effect. Brain Res (submitted)Google Scholar
  155. 153.
    Pomeranz B, Cheng R, Law P (1977) Acupuncture reduces electrophysiological and behavioural responses to noxious stimuli: pituitary is implicated. Exp Neurol 54:172–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 154.
    Pomeranz B, Mullen M, Markus H (1984) Effect of applied electrical fields on sprouting of intact saphenous nerve in adult rat. Brain Res 303: 331–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 155.
    Pontinen PJ (1979) Acupuncture in the treatment of low back pain and sciatica. Acupunct Electrother Res Int J 4: 53–57Google Scholar
  158. 156.
    Price DD, Rafii A et al (1984) A psychophysical analysis of acupuncture analgesia. Pain 19: 27–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 157.
    Reichmanis M, Marino AA, Becker RO (1975) Electrical correlates of acupuncture points. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 22: 533–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 158.
    Reichmanis M, Marino AA, Becker RO (1979) Laplace plane analysis of impedence on the H meridian. Am J Chin Med 7:188–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 159.
    Research Group Peking Med Coll (1974) The role of some neurotransmitters of brain in finger acupuncture analgesia. Sci Sin 17:112–130Google Scholar
  162. 160.
    Richardson PH, Vincent CA (1986) Acupuncture for the treatment of pain: a review of evaluative research. Pain 24:15–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 161.
    Rossier J, Guillemin R, Bloom FE (1977) Foot shock-induced stress increases β endorphin levels in blood but not brain. Nature 270: 618–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 162.
    Roy BP, Cheng R, Pomeranz B et al (1980) Pain threshold and brain endorphin levels in genetically obese ob/ob and opiate receptor deficient CXBK mice. In: Way EL (ed) Exogenous and endogenous opiate agonists and antagonists. Pergamon Press, Elmsford New York, p 297Google Scholar
  165. 163.
    Sainsbury MJ (1974) Acupuncture in heroin withdrawal. Med J Aust 3:102–105Google Scholar
  166. 164.
    Salar G, Trabucchi M et al (1981) Effect of transcutaneous electrotherapy on CSF beta endorphin content in patients without pain problems. Pain 10:169–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 165.
    Sato A, Sato Y, Schmidt RF (1986) Catecholamine secretion and adrenal nerve activity in response to movements of normal and inflamed knee joints in cats. J Physiol (Lond) 375: 611–624Google Scholar
  168. 166.
    Sato T, Takeshige C (1986) Morphine analgesia caused by activation of spinal acupuncture afferent pathway in the anterolateral tract. [In Japanese (English summary)] In Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based on animal experiments. Showa University Press, Tokyo p 673Google Scholar
  169. 167.
    Sato T, Usami S, Takeshige C (1986) Role of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus as the descending pain-inhibitory system in acupuncture point and non-point produced analgesia. [In Japanese (English summary)] In: Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based on animal experiments. Showa University Press, Tokyo, p 627Google Scholar
  170. 168.
    Sawynok J, Pinsky C, Labella FS (1979) Minireview on the specificity of naloxone as an opiate antagonist. Life Sci 25:1621–1632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 169.
    Schmidt RF (1971) Presynaptic inhibitions in the vertebrate central nervous system. Ergebn Physiol 63: 20–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 170.
    Severson L, Merkoff RA, Chun HH (1977) Heroin detoxification with acupuncture and electrical stimulation. Int J Addict 12: 911–922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 171.
    Shen E, Ma WH, Lan C (1978) Involvement of descending inhibition in the effect of acupuncture on the splanchnically evoked potentials in the orbital cortex of cat. Sci Sin 21: 677–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 172.
    Shimizu S, Takeshige C et al (1986) Relationship between endogenous morphine like factor and serotonergic system in analgesia of acupuncture anesthesia. [In Japanese (English summary)] In: Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based on animal experiments. Showa University Press, Tokyo, p 700Google Scholar
  175. 173.
    Shimizu T, Koja T et al (1981) Effects of methysergide and naloxone on analgesia produced by peripheral electrical stimulation in mice. Brain Res 208:463–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 174.
    Shu R, Pomeranz B et al (1986) Electrical impedance measurements of human skin at acupuncture points and changes produced by needling, (to be published)Google Scholar
  177. 175.
    Sjolund B, Terenius L, Eriksson M (1977) Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of endorphins after electroacupuncture. Acta Physiol Scand 100: 382–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 176.
    Sjolund BH, Erikson BE (1979) The influence of naloxone’ on analgesia produced by peripheral conditioning stimulation. Brain Res 173: 295–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 177.
    Sodipo JO, Gilly H, Pauser G (1981) Endorphins: mechanism of acupuncture analgesia. Am J Chin Med 9: 249–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 178.
    Spoerel W (1976) Acupuncture in chronic pain. Am J Chin Med 4: 267–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 179.
    Stacher G, Wancura I et al (1975) Effect of acupuncture on pain threshold and pain tolerance determined by electrical stimulation of the skin: a controlled study. Am J Chin Med 3: 143–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 180.
    Sung YF, Kutner MH et al (1977) Comparison of the effects of acupuncture and codeine on postoperative dental pain. Anesth Analg 56: 473–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 181.
    Takahashi G, Mera H, Kobori M (1986) Inhibitory action on analgesic inhibitory system and augmenting action on naloxone reversal analgesia of D-phenylalanine. [In Japanese (English summary)] In: Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based on animal experiments. Showa University Press, Tokyo, p 608Google Scholar
  184. 182.
    Takeshige C (1985) Differentiation between acupuncture and non-acupuncture points by association with an analgesia inhibitory system. Acupunct Electrother Res 10:195–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 183.
    Takishima T, Mue S, Tamura G et al (1982) The bronchodilating effect of acupuncture in patients with acute asthma. Ann Allergy 48: 44–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 184.
    Tanaka M (1986) Studies on analgesic enhancement by D-phenylalanine. [In Japanese (English summary)] In: Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based on animal experiments. Showa University Press, Tokyo, p 440Google Scholar
  187. 185.
    Tashkin D, Kroenig R et al (1977) Comparison of real and simulated acupuncture and iso-proteranol in comparison to methacholine-induced asthma. Ann Allergy 39: 379–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 186.
    Tashkin D, Kroenig R et al (1985) A controlled trial of real and simulated acupuncture in the management of chronic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 76: 855–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 187.
    Tay AA, Tseng CK, Pace NL et al (1982) Failure of narcotic antagonist to alter electroacupuncture modification of halothane anaesthesia in the dog. Can Anaesth Soc J 29: 231–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 188.
    Toda K, Ichioka M (1978) Electroacupuncture: relations between forelimb afferent impulses and suppression of jaw opening reflex in the rat. Exp Neurol 61: 465–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 189.
    Thoren P, Hoffman P (1986) Stimulation of somatic afferents can induce a long lasting modulation of sympathetic outflow in rats. (Abstract) Proc Int Union Physiol Sci 16: 36Google Scholar
  192. 190.
    Travell J, Rinzler SH (1952) Myofascial genesis of pain. Postgrad Med J 11: 425–434Google Scholar
  193. 191.
    Travell J, Simmons D (1983) Myofascial pain and dysfunction. The trigger point manual. William and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  194. 192.
    Tseng HL, Chang LT et al (1958) Electrical conductance and temperature of the cutaneous acupuncture points: a study of normal readings and bodily distributions. [In Chinese] J Trad Chin Med 12: 559–563Google Scholar
  195. 193.
    Tseng LF, Loh HH, Li CH (1976) Effects of systemic administration of endorphins. Nature 263:239–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 194.
    Tsunoda Y, Ikezono E et al (1980) Antagonism of acupuncture analgesia by naloxone in unconscious man. Bull Tokyo Med Dent 27: 89–94Google Scholar
  197. 195.
    Usami S, Takeshige C (1986) The difference in analgesia producing central pathway of stress-induced analgesia and that of acupuncture point and non-point produced analgesia. [In Japanese (English abstract)] In: Takeshige C (ed) Studies on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia based on animal experiments. Showa University Press, Tokyo, p 638Google Scholar
  198. 196.
    Vacca-Galloway LL et al (1985) Alterations of immunoreactive substance P and enkephalins in rat spinal cord after electroacupuncture. Peptides 6 [Suppl 1]: 177–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 197.
    Vincent CA, Richardson PH (1986) The evaluation of therapeutic acupuncture: concepts and methods. Pain 24:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 198.
    Walker JB, Katz RL (1981) Non-opioid pathways suppress pain in humans. Pain 11: 347–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 199.
    Wall PD (1972) An eye on the needle. New Sci July 20, pp 129–131Google Scholar
  202. 200.
    Wall PD (1974) Acupuncture revisited. New Sci Oct 3, pp 31–34Google Scholar
  203. 201.
    Wang K, Yao S, Xian Y, Hou Z (1985) A study on the receptive field of acupoints and the relationship between characteristics of needle sensation and groups of afferent fibres. Sci Sin 28:963–971Google Scholar
  204. 202.
    Watkins LR, Mayer DJ (1982) Organization of endogenous opiate and non-opiate pain control systems. Science 216:1185–1192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 203.
    Watson SJ, Barchas JD (1979) Anatomy of the endogenous opioid peptides and related substances. In: Beers RF (ed) Mechanisms of pain and analgesic compounds. Raven Press, New York, pp 227–237Google Scholar
  206. 204.
    Wen HL (1977) Fast detoxification of heroin addicts and electrical stimulation in combination with naloxone. Comp Med East West 5: 257–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 205.
    Wen HL, Cheung SYC (1973) Treatment of drug addiction by acupuncture and electrical stimulation. Asian J Med 9:138–141Google Scholar
  208. 206.
    Wen HL, Teo SW (1974) Experience in the treatment of drug addiction by electroacupuncture. Mod Med Asia 11: 23–24Google Scholar
  209. 207.
    Wen HL, Ho WK, Wong HK et al (1978) Reduction of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and Cortisol in drug addicts treated by acupuncture and electrical stimulation (AES). Comp Med East West 6: 61–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 208.
    Wen HL, Ho WK, Ling N, Ma L, Chao GH (1979) Influence of electro-acupuncture on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal: 2.Elevation of immunoassayable beta-endorphin activity in the brain but not the blood. Am J Chin Med 7: 237–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 209.
    Wen HL, Ho WK, Ling N et al (1980) Immunoassayable beta-endorphin level in the plasma and CSF of heroin addicted and normal subjects before and after electroacupuncture. Am J Chin Med 8:154–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 210.
    Willer JC, Boureau F et al (1982) Comparative effects of EA and TENS on the human blink reflex. Pain 14: 267–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 211.
    Woolf CJ (1984) Transcutaneous and implanted nerve stimulation. In: Wall PD, Melzack R (eds) Textbook of pain. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 679–690Google Scholar
  214. 212.
    Woolf CJ, Fitzgerald M (1982) Do opioid peptides mediate a presynaptic control of C-fiber transmission in the rat spinal cord. Neurosa Lett 29: 67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 213.
    Woolf CJ, Barrett G et al (1977) Naloxone reversible peripheral electroanalgesia in intact and spinal rats. Eur J Pharmacol 451: 311–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 214.
    Woolf CJ, Mitchell D et al (1978) Failure of naloxone to reverse peripheral TENS analgesia in patients suffering from trauma. S Afr Med J 53:179–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 215.
    Woolf CJ, Mitchell J, Barrett GD (1980) Antinociceptive effect of peripheral segmental electric stimulation in the rat. Pain 8: 237–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 216.
    Wu C (1984) An experience on electroacupuncture therapy of facial palsy. See ref (abstract) Proceedings of the Second National Symposium on Acupuncture and Moxibustion. All China Society of Acupuncture, Beijing p 42Google Scholar
  219. 217.
    Xie GX, Han JS, Holit V (1983) Electroacupuncture analgesia blocked by microinjection of anti-beta-endorphin antiserum into periaqueductal grey of the rabbit. Int J Neurosci 18: 287–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 218.
    Yaksh TL, Noueihed R (1985) The physiology and pharmacology of spinal opiates. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 25: 433–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 219.
    Yao TS, Andersson S, Thoren P (1982) Long lasting cardiovascular depression induced by acupuncture-like stimulation of the sciatic nerve in unanaesthetized spontaneous hypertensive rat. Brain Res 240: 77–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 220.
    Ye W, Feng X, Shen E (1984) Evaluation of the role played by different monoaminergic descending pathways in acupuncture analgesia effects in rats. (Abstract) Proceedings of the Second National Symposium on Acupuncture and Moxibustion, All China Society of Acupuncture. Beijing, p 416Google Scholar
  223. 221.
    Yi CC, Lu TH, Wu SH, Tsou K (1977) A study on the release of tritiated 5HT from brain during acupuncture and morphine analgesia. Sci Sinica 20:113–124Google Scholar
  224. 222.
    Yue SJ (1978) Acupuncture for chronic back and neck pain. Acupunct Electrother Res Int J 3:323–324Google Scholar
  225. 223.
    Yuen RWM, Vaughan RJ et al (1976) The response to acupuncture therapy in patients with chronic disabling pain. Med J Aust 1: 862–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 224.
    Zhou ZF, Du MY, Han JS et al (1981) Effect of intracerebral microinjection of naloxone on acupuncture- and morphine-analgesia in the rabbit. Sci Sin 24:1166–1178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 225.
    Zou K, Yi QC, Wu SX, Lu YX et al (1980) Enkephalin involvement in acupuncture analgesia. Sci Sin 23:1197–1207PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Pomeranz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations