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Charge Symmetry and Charge Independence

  • K. K. Seth
Conference paper

Abstract

Symmetry principles occupy a hallowed place in physics, indeed in all human culture. At the level at which we believe in a friendly and benevolent Nature, we believe in symmetries. Symmetries appeal to our sense of logic, order, and beauty. Nuclear physicists are very fond of pointing out that isospin (T) invariance was the first ‘internal’ symmetry (as distinguished from space-time symmetries) to be postulated[1], initially for nucleons, and soon after for mesons as well. Isospin invariance leads to the principle of charge independence (CI) which may be stated as:

Hadronic forces are invariant under rotations in isospin space, or
$$ \left[ {{H_{{hadr}}},\vec{T}} \right] = 0 $$
(1)

Obviously, we can formulate a weaker principle, i.e., charge symmetry (CS), which is contained in charge independence, but states:

Hadronic forces are invariant under rotations by 180°in isospin space, or,
$$ \left[ {{H_{{hadr}}},{e^{{i\pi {T_2}}}}} \right] = 0 $$
(2)

This is equivalent to the statement that a system with hadronic forces only is invariant if mesons and baryons in it (π+, π-,⋯, n, p,⋯) are all replaced by their charge symmetric counterparts (π+, π-,⋯, p, n,⋯) in the same space-spin states. It may be noted[2] that since apparent charge symmetry effects (e.g., equality of π+ and π- masses) may arise as a consequence of another unrelated invariance principle (TCP, in this case), it is clearly not enough to just test CS breaking (CSB). Charge independence breaking (CIB) must be also studied.

Keywords

Mass Difference Final State Interaction Pion Exchange Charge Symmetry Charge Independence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. K. Seth
    • 1
  1. 1.Northwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

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