Biomechanics and Pathomechanics of the Shoulder Joint with Reference to Prosthetic Joint Replacement

  • G. Bergmann


The extremely large range of motion of the upper arm is made possible by the coordinated interaction of multiple joints, and the biomechanics of the glenohumeral joint can be studied and understood only in relation to the biomechanics of the shoulder as a whole. When the glenohumeral joint is replaced with a prosthesis, four closely interrelated problems arise that assume major importance:
  1. 1.

    Contact of the joint surfaces can be maintained either by the balance of imposed forces (unconstrained prosthesis) or by the geometry of the artificial joint (constrained prosthesis).

  2. 2.

    The possible range of motion of the joint depends on the selected design.

  3. 3.

    Both factors jointly determine the loads that are transmitted through the sites of attachment of the prosthesis.

  4. 4.

    The loads on the bone vary according to the manner in which the prosthesis is attached to the bone. These problems, together with the mechanical durability of the prosthesis and other factors, critically influence the long-term success of the arthroplasty.



Shoulder Joint Glenohumeral Joint Glenoid Component Joint Force Neck Diameter 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

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  • G. Bergmann

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