Operative ultrasound, which permits direct placement of the probe on the organ to be studied during surgery, has been in existence for over 20 years. Early experiences with its use in urologic  and biliary surgery [7, 8, 9] were limited by technical difficulties but the evolution of B-mode, real-time ultrasound has made possible the broad application of ultrasound in the operating room.
KeywordsRenal Calculus Hepatobiliary Disease Hepatic Surgery Biliary Surgery Common Duct Stone
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