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Endokrinologie der Schwangerschaft

  • I. Gerhard
  • B. Runnebaum

Zusammenfassung

Während der Fetalzeit läuft im weiblichen Ovar die Prophase der 1. meiotischen Reifeteilung (Reduktionsteilung) bis zum Diplotänstadium ab (nach Austausch homologer Chromatidabschnitte beginnende Trennung der Chromosomenstränge bis zu den Kreuzungsstellen). Anschließend erfolgt ein scheinbares Ruhestadium, das für den einzelnen Follikel 10–40 Jahre lang andauert. Erst mit zunehmender FSHSekretion in der Follikelphase des Zyklus wird die Meiose eines bestimmten Follikels wieder aufgenommen und die homologen Chromosomenpaare werden getrennt, so daß eine Oozyte mit dem haploiden Chromosomensatz 22 X entsteht und ein Polkörperchen. Zum Zeitpunkt der Ovulation beginnt die 2. meiotische Reifeteilung (Äquationsteilung) dieses Follikels, die jedoch nur vollendet wird, wenn ein Spermium penetrieren kann. Im Hoden des Mannes werden ab Beginn der Geschlechtsreife ständig aus Spermatogonien durch Mitose Spermatozyten 1. Ordnung (primäre Spermatozyten) gebildet. Bei der 1. Reifeteilung entstehen Spermatozyten 2. Ordnung (Präspermatiden). Die 2. Reifeteilung führt zur Bildung der Spermatiden, woraus über 6 Stadien der Histogenese das reife Spermatozoon entsteht. Die Entwicklung von der Spermatogonie zum reifen Spermium nimmt etwa 74 Tage in Anspruch. Während sich aus einer primären Oozyte bei der Frau nur ein Ei entwickeln kann, entstehen aus der primären Spermatozyte des Mannes 4 Spermatiden mit den Chromosomensätzen 23 X oder 23 Y (Abb. 16.1).

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

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  • I. Gerhard
  • B. Runnebaum

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