Compound Potentials of the Brain, Ongoing and Evoked: Perspectives from Comparative Neurology
Fluctuating membrane potentials and various kinds of episodic potentials of action or oscillation are of general occurrence among nerve cells as well as other kinds of cells, for example, the cells of the blastula (Burr and Bullock 1941), the skin, gland, gut, muscle, and blood vessels.
At least six different kinds of active potentials are known in neurons and parts of neurons, including synaptic potentials with various properties, hyperpolarizations with long duration and decreased conductance, plateau potentials, pacemaker potentials, spikes, and negative and positive afterpotentials. The power spectrum of all these processes extends from dc to several kHz.
Lamination or other geometric biases can be expected to influence the summing of these cellular sources in special situations.
The null hypothesis of the independence of generators predicts a certain level of coincidence, depending on the duration of the cellular event and the definition of simultaneity.
Therefore large numbers of generators, small and large, are operative, in all orientations, some rhythmically but many episodically and generating broad-band signals, mostly spreading decrementally. The composite will therefore have a lot of spatial microstructure and less and less structure at macro levels. What cannot be predicted is the amplitude, frequency, and spatial and temporal structure.
KeywordsPower Spectrum Optic Tectum Compound Potential Humpback Whale Current Source Density
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