Advertisement

Enzyme-Immunoassay: A Review

  • A. Hubbuch
  • E. Debus
  • R. Linke
  • W. J. Schrenk
Part of the Progress in Clinical Biochemistry and Medicine book series (PCBM, volume 4)

Abstract

The rapid expansion of immunoassays is due to their remarkable specificity and sensitivity, allowing the quantitation of a large variety of structures. In the last few years enzyme-immunoassays in particular have found wide acceptance in clinical laboratories.

Keywords

Enzyme Label Total Incubation Time Competitive Test Heterogeneous Enzyme Immunoenzymometric Assay 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Vogt, W.: Internist 22, 308 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oellerich, M.: Akt. Endokrin. Stoffw. 5, 6 (1984)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wood, W. G., Walter, D, Hantke, U.: J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 25, 461 (1985)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sarkinnen,. H. K., Tuokko, H., Halonen, P. E: J. Virol. Methods 1, 331 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    O’Sullivan, M. J., Bridges, J. W., Marks, W.: Ann. Clin. Biochem. 16, 221 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Monroe, D: Anal. Chem. 56, 920A (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oellerich, M.: J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 22, 895 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Engvall, E, Perlmann, P.: Immunochemistry 8, 871 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Van Weemen, B K., Schuurs, A H. W. M.: FEBS Lett. 15, 232 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yalow, R. S., Berson, S. A: J. Clin. Invest. 39, 1137 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rubenstein, K. E, Schneider, R. S., Ullmann, E F.: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Communications 47, 876 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schuurs, A H. W. M., Van Weemen, B K.: Clinica Chimica Acta 81, 1 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wisdom, G. B: Clin. Chem. 22, 1243 (1976)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ngo, T. T., Lenhoff, H. M.: Appl. Biochem. Biotechn. 6, 53 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Feldmann, G., Druet, P., Bignon, J., Averameas, S. (eds.): Immunoenzymatic Techniques, Amsterdam, North Holland, American Elsevier (1976)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Engwall, E, Pesce, A J. (eds.): Quantitative Enzyme Immunoassay, Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications (1978)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pal, S. B (eD): Enzyme Labelled Immunoassay of Hormones and Drugs, Berlin, Walter de Gruyter (1978)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vogt, W. (eD): Enzymimmunoassay — Grundlagen und praktische Anwendung, Stuttgart, Thieme (1981)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oellerich, M.: Principles of Enzyme-immunoassays. In: Methods of Enzymatic Analysis (eds. Bergmeyer, H. U., Bergmeyer, J., Graβl, M.), Weinheim, Verlag Chemie, Vol. I, 233 (1983)3 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nakamura, R. M., Pito, W. R., Tucker III, E S. (eds.): Immunoassays in the Clinical Laboratory, New York, Alan R. Liss (1979)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maggio, T. (eD): Enzyme immunoassay Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press (1980)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Malvano, R. (eD): Immunoenzymatic Assay Techniques, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff (1980)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ishikawa, E, Kawai, T., Miyai, K. (eds.): Enzyme Immunoassay, Tokyo, Igaku Shoin (1981)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Voller, A, Bartlett, A, Bidwell, D (eds.): Immunoassays for the 80s, Lancaster, UK, MTP Press (1981)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ngo, T. T., Lenhoff, H. M.: Enzyme-mediated immunoassay, New York, London, Plenum Press, p. 1 (1985)1 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Averameas, S., Druet, P., Masseyeff. R., Feldmann, G. (eds.): , Amsterdam, Elsevier (1983)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Talwar, G. P. (eD): Non Isotopic Immunoassays and Their Applications, New Dehli, Vikas Publishing House (1983)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Butt, W. R. (eD): , New York, Marcel Dekker (1984)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bergmeyer, H. U., Bergmeyer, J., Graβl, M. (eds.): Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Volume IX, Proteins and Peptides, Weinheim, Verlag Chemie (1986)3 Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Voller, A, Bidwell, D E, Bartlett, A: The Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), London, The Authors (1979)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Engvall, E: Enzyme Immunoassay ELISA and EMIT. In: Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 70, p. 419, (eds.) Vunakis, H. van, Langone, J. J., New York, Academic Press (1980)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Clark, B R., Engvall, E: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). In: Theoretical and Practical Aspects (eD) Maggio, E T., p. 167, Boca Raton, CRC Press (1980)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Voller, A: Heterogeneous Enzyme Immunoassays and Their Applications. In: Enzyme Immuno-assay (eD) Maggio, E T., p. 181, Boca Raton, CRC Press (1980)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grenner, G.: Principles and Applications of Heterogeneous Enzyme Immunoassays. In: Modern Methods in Protein Chemistry (eD) Tscheche, H., p. 149, Berlin, de Gruyter (1983)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Müller-Esterl, W.: Practical Considerations in Enzyme-immunoassays Illustrated by a Model System, p. 15, in loC cit. 29Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Henkel, E: J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 22, 919 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Esser, A F.: LaB Res. Methods Biol. MeD 4, 213 (1980)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Olsson, T., Thore, A: Chemiluminescence and its Use in Immunoassay, p. 113 in loC cit. 24Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wood, W. G.: J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 22, 905 1 (1984)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cais, M., Dani, S., Eden, Y. et al.: Nature (London) 270, 534 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Soeni, E, Hemmila, I.: Clin. Chem. 25, 353 (1979)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hemmilä, I.: Clin. Chem. 31, 359 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ullmann, E F., Blakemore, J., Lente, R. K., Einstad, W., Jaklitsch, A: Clin. Chem. 21, 1011 (1975)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    U.S. Patent 4.510.240Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Burd, I. F., Wang, R. C, Feeney, I. E, Carrico, R. I., Boguslaski, R. C: Clin. Chem. 23, 1402 (1977)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Finley, P. R., Williams, R. I., Lichti, D A: Clin. Chem. 26, 1723 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    U.S. Patent 4.272.866Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    U.S. Patent 4.134.792Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ngo, T. T.: Int. J. Biochem. 15, 583 (1983)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Morris, D L., Ellis, P. B, Hornby, W. E et al.: Anal. Chem. 53, 658 (1981)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tynach, R. J., Rupchock, P. A, Pendergrass, S., Kjold, A. C, Smith, P. I. et al.: Clin. Chem. 27, 1499 (1981)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sheeham, M., Caron, G., Muegler, P.: Clin. Chem. 31, 932 (1985)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lindberg, R., Ivaska, K., Irjola, K., Vanto, T.: Clin. Chem. 31, 613 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fan, S., Hedaya, E, Hwang, D, Mak, A, Malin, M., Oraivej, N., Schwarzenberg, M., Scott, M. E, Seman, K.: Clin. Chem. 31, 909 (1985)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Litchfield, W. I., Freytag, J. W.: Liposomo-Entrapped Enzyme Mediated Immunoassays, p. 145, loC cit. 25Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Litchfield, W. I., Freytag, J. W., Adamich, M.: Clin. Chem. 30, 1441 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Litman, D J., Hanlon, T. M., Ullmann, E F.: Anal. Biochem. 106, 223 (1980)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zuk, R. F., Ginsberg, V. K., Honts, T. et al.: Clin. Chem. 31, 1144 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bulcke, J. A, Sherwin, A L.: Immunochemistry 7, 681 (1969)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jockers-Wretou, E, Pfleiderer, G.: Clin. Chim. Acta 58, 223 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gibbons, I.: Nonseparation Enzyme Immunoassays for Macromolecules, p. 121, loC cit. 25Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Litman, D J.: Test Strip Enzyme Immunoassay, p. 155, loC cit. 25Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Belanger, L., Sylvestre, C, Dufour, D: Clin. Chim. Acta 84, 15 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Carter, J. H.: Future Trends in Non-Isotopic Immunoassays, p. 11 in Syllabus, 11th Meeting Clinical Ligand Assay Society (eD) Kolis, M., Clinical Ligand Assay Society, New Orelans (1985)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Masseyeff, R., Maiolini, R., Bouron, Y.: Biomedicine 19, 314 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ferrna, B, Milano, G., Ly, B, Guennec, J. Y., Masseyeff, R.: J. Immunol. Methods 60, 257 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Schuurs, A H. W. M., Van Weeman, B K.: Dt. Ges. f. klin. Chemie EV. Mitteilungen 10, 22 (1979)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tchen, P.: DNA 4, 93 (1985)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ngo, T. T., Carrico, R. J., Boguslaski, R. C, Burd, I. F.: J. Immunol. Methods 42, 93 (1981)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kasahara, Y., Ashihara, Y., Nishizono, I.: Clin. Chem. 31, 912 (1985)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fuhrmann, M., Graninger, W., Havel, M., Silberbauer, K.: Berichte der OGKC 8, 19 (1985)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Oellerich, M.: J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 18, 197 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Willnow, P., Raichle, T.: Poster Scientific Bavaria (1985)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Meyer, H. D, Braun, S. L.: Ärztl. LaB 31, 308 (1985)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bergmeyer, H. U., Horder, M., Markowetz, D: Reliability of Laboratory Results and Practicability of Procedures, loC cit. 19, 21Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hilschmann, N., Barnikol, H. U., Kratzin, H., Altevogt, P., Engelhard, M., Barnikol-Watanabe, S.: Naturwissenschaften 65, 616 (1978)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hilschmann, N., Craig, L. C: ProC Nat. AcaD Sci. U.S.A 53, 1403 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Davies, D R., Padlan, E A, Segal, D M.: Ann. Rev. Biochem. 44, 639 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Huber, R., Deisenhofer, J., Colman, P. M., Matsushima, M., Palm, N.: X-Ray Diffraction Analysis if Immunoglobulin Structure, in: The Immune System, 27. Coll. Mosbach 1976, p. 26, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer (1976)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Simon, Z.: Angew. Chem. 86, 802 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Berzofsky, J. A, Schechter, A N.: Mol. Immunol. 18, 751 (1981)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Benjamin, D C, Berzofsky, J. A, East, I. J., Gurd, F. R. N., Hannum, C, Leach, S. J., Margoliash, E, Michael, J. G., Miller, A, Prager, E M., Reichlin, M., Sercarz, E E, Smith-Gill, S. J., Todd, P. E, Wilson, A C: Ann. Rev. Immunol. 2, 67 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lerner, R. A: Nature 299, 592 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Brown, R. K., Delaney, R., Levine, L., Van Vunakis, H.: J. Biol. Chem. 234, 2043 (1959)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sela, M.: Science 166, 1365 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sela, M., Schechter, B, Schechter, I., Borek, F.: Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 32, 537 (1967)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schwarz, S., Berger, P., Wick, G.: Clin. Chem. 31, 1322 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nickoloff, E L.: CRC Crit. Rev. Clin. LaB Sci. 21, 255 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Valdes, R. Jr., Graves, S. W., Brown, B A, Landt, M.: J. Pediatr. 102, 947 (1983)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Valdes, R. Jr., Siegfried, B: Clin. Chem. 29, 1166 (1983)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hsu, T. H., Nickoloff, E L., Rock, R. C, Herner, A: J. Nucl. MeD, 19, 703 (1978)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nickoloff, E L., Hsu, T. H., Rock, R. C, Perlstein, M.: ProC Clin. Radioassay SoC 4th Natl. Meet., Los Angeles 28, (1978)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lipson, A, Nickoloff, E L., Hsu, T. H.: ProC Clin. Radioassay SoC 4th Natl. Meet., Los Angeles 30 (1978)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Clayton-Hopkins, J. A, Nickoloff, E L., Rule, A H., Lassman, M. N., Printz, D: Clin. Radioassay SoC 5th Natl. Meet. Washington, DC 130 (1979)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Vidnes, A, Silsand, T., Ljosland, R., Kapelrud, H., Prydz, P. E: ScanD J. Clin. LaB Invest. 42, 431 (1982)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Allan, D J., Murphy, F., Needham, C A, Barron, N., Wilkins, T. A, Midgley, J. E M.: Lancet 2, 824 (1982)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bhagat, C I., Garcia-Webb, P., Watson, F., Beilby, J. P.: Clin. Chem. 29, 1324 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vladutiu, A O., Sulewski, J. M., Pudlak, K. A, Stull, C G.: JAMA 248, 2489 (1982)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hunter, W. M., Budd, P. S.: Lancet 2, 1136 (1980)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Howanitz, P. J., Howanitz, J. H., Lamberson, H. V., Benedict, S.: Clin. Chem. 26, 1020 (1980)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    McKiel, R. R., Barron, N., Needham, C J., Wilkins, T. A: Clin. Chem. 28, 2333 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Shah, V. P., Knapp, G., Skelly, J. P., Cabana, B E: Clin. Chem. 28, 2327 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Koida, M., Nakamuta, H., Matsuo, J., Yamamoto, Y., Orlowski, R. C: Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 32, 413 (1982)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Moser, R., Crompton, R. M., Scovill, D M., Stone, A J., Valdez, J., Centofanti, J. W., Monte, A: Clin. Chem. 31, 928 (1985)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Shiveley, J. E: J. Clin. Immunoassay 7, 112 (1984)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kessler, A-Ch., Rudorff, K. H., Oellerich, M., Horn, K., Mattersberger, J., Hesch, R. D: J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 23, 117 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    BCR report: EUR 99 21 EN, Marchandise (eD) (1985)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    WHO report: WHO/BS/85/1462 (1985)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ashihara, Y., Nishizono, H., Tsuchiya, H., Tanimoto, T., Kasahara, Y.: Clin. Chem. 31, 904 (1985)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kasahara, Y., Ashihara, Y., Nishizono, I.: Clin. Chem. 31, 912–913 (1985)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hoshino, N., Hama, M., Suzuki, R., Kataoka, Y., Sol, G.: J. Biochem. 97, 113 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Schroeder, H. R., Dean, C L., Johnson, P. K., Morris, D L., Hurtle, R. L.: Clin. Chem. 31, 1432Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Cole, F. X., MacDonnell, P., Myles, A, Law, S.-J., Bruman, J., Clough, K. M., Vovis, G. F.: Abstract, 2nd International Symposium on immunoenzymatic techniques, Cannes (1983)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    DAS 2206103 (1972)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Product information, American Dade (1986)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Scopes, R. K.: Protein Purification, Principles and Practice, New York, Springer Verlag (1982)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hurn, B A L., Chantler, S. U.: Meth. in Enzymology 70, 104, London, Academic Press (1980)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ouchterlony, O.: Acta Pathol. Mikrobiol. ScanD 32, 231 (1953)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Pierce, S. K., Klinman, N. R.: J. exp. MeD 144, 1254 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nairn, R. C: Fluorescent protein tracing, New York, Churchill Livingstone (1976)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Goding, J. W.: Monoclonal Antibodies: Principles and Practice, p. 250, London, Academic Press (1983)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mason, D W., Williams, A F.: Biochem. J. 187, 1 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Jaton, J. C, Brandt, D C, Vasalli, P.: In: Immunological Methods ( Lefkovits, I., Perris, B eds.) 43, New York, Academic Press (1979)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Fuchs, S., Sela, M.: In: Handbook of Experimental Immunology, Vol. I, 10. 1.—10. 6 ( Weir, D M. eD) Oxoford, Blackwell (1978)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    JohnstonE A, Thorpe, R.: Immunochemistry in Practice, Chat. 10, Oxford, Blackwell (1982)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Schrenk, W. J., Kiirzinger, K.: Medical LaB Sci. 43, 269 (1986)Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Köhler, G., Milstein, C: Nature 256, 495 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Galfre, G., Milstein, C: Methods Enzymol. 73, 1 (1981)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Goding, J. W.: Journ. Immunol. Meth. 39, 285 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Mishell, B B, Shiigi, S. M. (eds.): Selected Methods in Cellular Immunology, San Francisco, Freeman (1980)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kennett, R. H., McKearn, T. J., Bechtol, K. D (eds.): Monoclonal Antibodies, New York, Plenum (1980)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Stähli, C, Miggiano, V., Stocker, V., Staehelin, T., Harnig, P., Takacs, B: Methods in Enzymol. 92, 242 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Friguet, B, Djavadi-Ohaniance, L., Pages, J., Bussard, A, Goldberg, M.: J. Immunol. Methods 60, 351 (1983)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Piechaczyk, M., Chardes, T., Cot, M. C, Pan, B, Bastide, J. M.: Hybridoma 4, 361 (1985)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kaizu, T., Kojima, K., Iwasaki, K., Yamashita, T.: Thrombosis Research 40, 91 (1985)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Albert, H. W.: Monoclonal Antibodies: Advantages and Disadvantages in Production of Test system. In: New Technologies in Clinical Laboratory Science, Shinton, N. K. (eD), p. 83, MTP Press Limited (1983)Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Ishikawa, E, Imagawa, M., Hashida, S., Yoshitake, S., Hamagushi, Y., Ueno, T.: J. Immuno-assay 4, 209 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Erlanger, B F.: Pharm. Rev. 25, 271 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Avrameas, S.: Immunochemistry 6, 43 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Wilson, M. B, Nakane, P. K.: In: Related Staining Techniques, Knapp, W., Holubar, K., Wick, G. (eds.), p. 215, Amsterdam, Elsevier (1978)Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Carlsson, J., Drevin, H., Axen, R.. Biochem. J. 173, 723 (1978)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Ishikawa, E, Imagawa, M., Hashida, S., Yoshitake, S., Hamaguchi, Y., Ueno, T.: Immuno-assay 4, 209 (1983)Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ishikawa, W., Yoshitaka, H., Yoshitake, S.: In: Enzyme-Immunoassay, Ishikawa, E, Kawai, T., Miyai, K. (eds.), p. 67, Tokyo, Igaku-Shoin (1981)Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Kitagawa, T.: In: Enzyme-Immunoassay, Ishikawa, E, Kawai, T., Miyai, K. (eds.), p. 81, Tokyo, Igaku-Shoin (1981)Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Porstmann, B, Porstmann, T., Nugel, E, Evers, U.: J. Immunol. Methods 79, 27 (1985)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kabakoff, D S.: In: Enzyme-Immunoassay, Maggio, E T. (eD), p. 71, Boca Raton; CRC Press (1980)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Nambara, T., Hosoda, H.: In: Enzyme-Immunoassay, Ishikawa, E, Kawai, T., Miyai, K. (eds.), p. 106, Tokyo, Igaku-Shoin (1981)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Kleinhammer, G., Lenz, H., Linke, R., Staehler, F.: In: Enzymimmunoassay, Vogt, W. (eD), p. 42, Stuttgart, Georg Thieme Verlag (1978)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Product Information: Abott Diagnostics, HybritechGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Cohen, B, Crowe, I., Craine, I., Hargitay, B, Meriadec, B, Richmann, U., Schwarzenberg, M. et al.: Clin. Chem. 31, 909 (1985)Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Giegel, I. L., Brotherton, M. M., Cronin, P., D’Aquino, M., Evans, S., Heller, Z. H., Knight, W. S., Krishna, K., Sheiman, M.: Clin. Chem. 28, (1982)Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Thunberg, A L., Danielson, S. I., Dappen, G. M., Findlay, I. B, Sundberg, W. M.: Clin. Chem. 31, 910 (1985)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Morrissey, B W.: The Adsorption and Conformation of Plasma Proteins: A Physical Approach, in: The Behavior of Blood and its Components at Interfaces, Vroman, L., Leonard, E F. (eds.), Vol. 283, p. 50, New York AcaD Sci. (1977)Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Pesce, A J., Ford, D J., Gaizutis, M., Pollak, V. E: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 492, 399 (1977)Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Cantarero, L. A, Butler, J. E, Osborne, J. W.: Anal. Biochem. 105, 375 (1980)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Deeg, R.: Development of Enzymun-Test CEA, in: Workshop Report Enzymun-Test CEA, Kessler, A C (eD), p. 5, Mannheim, Boehringer Mannheim GmbH (1985)Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Würzburg, U., Heinrich, N., Lang, H., Prellwitz, W., Neumeier, D, Knedel, M.: Klin Wschr. 54, 357 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Shulman, S., Mamrod, L., Gondor, M. J., Soanes, W. A: J. Immunol. 93, 474 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Grenner, G., Schmidberger, R.: J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 17, 156 (1979)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Choe, B, Pontes, J., Dong, M. K., Rose, N. R.: Clin. Chem. 26, 1854 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Gerber, M., Naujoks, K., Lenz, H., Wulff, K.: Clin. Chem. 32, 1131 (1986)Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Ey, P. L., Prowse, S. J., Jenkin, C F.: Immunchem. 15, 429 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Goding, J. W.: J. immunol. Methods 20, 241 (1978)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    The Application of High Performance Ion Exchange Chromatography in Hybridoma Technology, Review, Technical Review Series, Pharmacia Fine Chemicals (1983)Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hill, E A, Penney, R. J., Anderton, B A: Poster C 101 presented at 14th Int. Symp. on Chromatography, London (1982)Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Masseyeff, R. F., Malvano, R.: Problems in Standardization of Enzyme-immunoassays for Antigens, p. 38, loC cit. 29Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Underwood, P. A, Bean, P. A: J. Immunol. Meth. 80, 189 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Falkenberg, F. W., Pierard, D, Mai, U., Kantwerk, G.: J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 22, 867 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Standefer, J. C: Separation-Required (Heterogeneous) Enzyme Immunoassay for Haptens and Antigens, p. 203, loC cit. 25Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Hubbuch
    • 1
  • E. Debus
    • 1
  • R. Linke
    • 1
  • W. J. Schrenk
    • 1
  1. 1.Boehringer Mannheim GmbhMannheimDeutschland

Personalised recommendations