Divergence Pattern of Horseshoe Crabs: Immunological Constitution and Immunological Distance of the Asian Horseshoe Crab’s Hemocyanins

  • H. Sugita
Conference paper


Extant horseshoe crabs are assigned to two subfamilies, that is, Limulinae and Tachypleinae. Limulinae includes only one American species, Limulus polyphemus, and Tachypleinae includes three Asian species, Tachypleus tridentatus, Tachypleus gigas, and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. These living species are morphologically similar to fossil specimens of the genus Mesolimulus, so that one has referred to them as “living fossils.”


Horseshoe Crab Living Fossil Monomer Band Immunological Comparison Distinct Monomer 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Sugita
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biological SciencesUniversity of TsukubaSakura-mura, Ibaraki 305Japan

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