The Relationship of Schizoaffective Illnesses to Schizophrenic and Affective Disorders

  • R. E. Kendell


The existence of patients who develop schizophrenic and affective symptoms simultaneously has always been puzzling, and a challenge to the Zweiteilungsprinzip enunciated by Kraepelin at the beginning of the century. Before the 1970s, such patients were rarely studied. The general assumption that schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness were distinct disease entities resulted in their being either ignored or included in one or the other of these major groupings and their atypical features glossed over. They have attracted more interest in the last 15 years, but their status is still uncertain, partly because the term schizoaffective has been applied by different authors to different kinds of patients. Some have used the term to describe those who develop schizophrenic and affective syndromes on separate occasions, and even the more numerous writers who have been concerned only with patients with concurrent schizophrenic and affective symptoms have applied the term to patients of varied kinds. The problem is that the concept of schizoaffective illness is at the mercy of variable concepts of schizophrenia and affective psychosis. A psychiatrist with a broad concept of both schizophrenia and affective psychosis has no need to use the term schizoaffective, whereas a psychiatrist with narrow concepts of both major syndromes has to apply the term schizoaffective, or some other alternative label, to a high proportion of the patients he sees. And there may be almost no overlap between the patients labelled as ‘schizoaffective’ by a psychiatrist with a broad concept of schizophrenia and a narrow one of affective psychosis, and those so labelled by a psychiatrist with a broad concept of affective psychosis and a narrow one of schizophrenia.


Discriminant Function Schizoaffective Disorder Index Admission Affective Symptom Discriminant Function Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andreasen NC, Endicott J, Spitzer RL, Winokur G (1977) The family history method using diagnostic criteria. Arch Gen Psychiatry 34: 1229–1235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Brockington IF, Kendell RE, Kellett JM, Curry SH, Wainwright S (1978) Trials of lithium, chlorpromazine and amitriptyline in schizoaffective patients. Br J Psychiatry 133: 162–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brockington IF, Kendell RE, Wainwright S (1980 a) Depressed patients with schizophrenic or paranoid symptoms. Psychol Med 10: 665–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brockington IF, Wainwright S, Kendell RE (1980 b) Manic patients with schizophrenic or paranoid symptoms. Psychol Med 10: 73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kendell RE, Brockington IF (1980) The identification of disease entities and the relationship between schizophrenic and affective psychoses. Br J Psychiatry 137: 324–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Spitzer R, Endicott J, Robins E (1975) Research diagnostic criteria instrument no. 58. New York State Psychiatric Institute, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Wing JK, Cooper JE, Sartorius N (1974) Description and classification of psychiatric symptoms. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  8. World Health Organisation (1981) Current state of diagnosis and classification in the mental health field. WHO, Geneva, p 39Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin-Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. E. Kendell
    • 1
  1. 1.Royal Edinburgh HospitalUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghScotland

Personalised recommendations