The Transformation of New Genetic Material into Pluripotential Embryonic Cells Grown In Vitro and Their Incorporation into Chimaeric Animals
Understanding of the control of genetic expression which underlies the orderly processes of development requires a detailed knowledge both of the developmental processes themselves and of the genes involved in their control. Studies both of the processes of development and the action of developmentally controlling and developmentally regulated genes is greatly facilitated by the availability of tractable experimental systems. The mouse embryo has provided the major experimental system for the study of mammalian embryonic development. Description and experimental manipulation of the preimplantation stages is well-advanced and the teratocarcinoma stem cell (EC) and directly isolated (EK) in vitro stem cell culture systems provide a link between in vivo and in vitro studies. Although our knowledge of the genetics of the mouse is the best for any experimental mammal, the speed of genetic analysis of development is impeded both by the relatively small number of known early-acting mutants and by the difficulties of characterising their primary action. Discussed here is an approach of transgenesis via in vitro cell culture which provides the possibilities of testing the action of known genetic constructs, interfering specifically with selected gene action, and of producing new mutations which are specifically identified at the molecular level ab initio.
KeywordsRecombination Germinal Sarcoma Stein Compro
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Evans MJ, Bradley A, Kuehn M, Robertson EJ (1985) The ability of EK cells to form chimaeras after selection of clones in G418 and some observations on the integration of retroviral vector pro-viral DNA into EK cells. Banbury report 20: genetic manipulation of the early mammalian embryo. Cold Spring Harbor, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Evans M, Robertson E, Bradley A, Kaufman MH (1983) Relationship between embryonal carcinoma cells and embryos. In: McLaren, Wylie (Eds) Current problems in germ cell differentiation, Symposium. Br Soc Devel Biol 7. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Mulligan RC (1983) Construction of highly transmissable mammalian cloning vehicles derived from murine retroviruses. In: Experimental manipulation of gene expression, p 155Google Scholar
- Palmiter RD, Brinster RL (1985) Transgenic mice. Cell 41:343–345Google Scholar
- Robertson EJ, Kaufman MH, Bradley A, Evans MJ (1983) Isolation, properties and karyotype analysis of pluripotential (EK) cell lines from normal and parthenogenetic embryos. Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell proliferation, vol 10. Cold Spring Harbor, New York, p 647Google Scholar